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Islamic Family Law

A guide to Islamic Family Law and Family Law in the Middle East. It was created by Stephen Wiles and is now updated by a team of foreign, comparative and international law librarians.

Islamic Family Law Home

Welcome

On these pages are the sources I most often recommend for researching and learning about Islamic Law.  If you don't see what you need, contact me using the information to the right!  I'm available for quick questions or for private research consultation by appointment.

General Introductions to Islamic Law

Basic Introductory Texts:

  • Joseph Schacht,  Introduction to Islamic Law.  Law School:  Islamic Ref KBP144 .S34x 1964  &  MOSLEM 903 SCH.
  • Noel J. Coulson.  A history of Islamic law.  Law School:  MOSLEM 905 COU57 1997
  • Knut Vikør.  Between God and the sultan : a history of Islamic law.  Law School:  Islamic Ref KBP50 .V55x 2005
  • Mūʾil Yūsuf ʻIzz al-Dīn.  Islamic law : from historical foundations to contemporary practice.  Law School:   Islamic Ref KBP144 .D54 2004
  • Judith E. Tucker. Women, family, and gender in Islamic law: KBP526.3.T83 2008 http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:hul.ebook:NLIB_254485

Articles:

  • Chibli Mallat.  "From Islamic to Middle Eastern law: a restatement of the field." American Journal of Comparative Law 51.4 (Fall 2003): 699-750 (Part I)  and  American Journal of Comparative Law 52.1 (Wntr 2004): 209-286. (Part II).
  • Amira El-Azhary Sonbol.  Shari'ah and state formation: historical perspective.Chicago Journal of International Law 8.1 (Summer 2007): 59-83.
  • Hisham M.  Ramadan, . "Toward honest and principled Islamic law scholarship.(The Future of Islamic Scholarship)." Michigan State Law Review 2006.6 (Dec 31, 2006): 1573-1607

Basic Treatises on Islamic Family Law

Islamic family law in a changing world : a global resource book. (Abdullahi A. An-Na’im, ed.)    Islamic Ref MOSLEM 913 ISL36 2002 [Copies 1-2]

Tahir Mahmood. Statutes of personal law in Islamic countries: history, texts and analysis. Islamic Ref  MOSLEM 913 MAH66 1995

Dawoud El Alami & Doreen Hinchcliffe. Islamic marriage and divorce laws of the Arab world. Islamic Ref  KMC160 .E4 1996

David  Pearl. Muslim family law. Islamic Ref MOSLEM 913 PEA75 1998

Lynn, Welchman. Women and Muslim family laws in Arab states : a comparative overview of textual development and advocacy: KBP550.32.W45 A39 2007

HOLLIS+ Basic Search

Islamic Family Law--Searching for Information

Searching for information on Islamic Family Law

Basic Reference Sources

There are a number of basic reference sources you can use to define terms, etc. as you begin your research.  

Encyclopaedia of Islam Online--Extensice encyclopedia with over 13,000 articles on Islamic and Middle Eastern Studies.  

Encyclopaedia of the Qur'an--Encyclopedia covering all aspects of the Qur’an including qur’anic terms, concepts, personalities, place names, cultural history and exegesis as well as essays on important themes and subjects within qur’anic studies.

Catalogues

A good place to start is the Harvard online public catalogue called Hollis.  General books dealing with family law can be catalogued under "family law", "domestic relations" and "personal status" in addition to  more specific  subjects like "marriage"  or "divorce".  Search for these topics and "Islamic Law" or a particular country like "Egypt".  At Harvard, most materials on Islamic law will be found in HLSL, Widener and Andover-Harvard Theological Library.

If you are interested in knowing about books at other libraries, WorldCat is an excellent resource.  Here you will access to the collections at major research libraries all over the world.  Search terms are the same as for Hollis.

Indexes

There are many useful indexes for finding articles about Islamic law.  

These are accessible via E-Research on Hollis and will require a HU ID and PIN number if you are off campus (Exception--Le Doctrinal. See below)

Index Islamicus--produced by the Islamic Bibliography Unit at Cambridge University Library, is a bibliography of publications in European languages on all aspects of Islam and the Muslim world. Index Islamicus provides access to over 2,000 journals and series

LegalTrac--indexes the contents of nearly 1000 legal periodicals, including academic law journals, bar association publications, and legal newspapers covering English-language publications from the U.S., Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Ireland, and the U.K.

Index to Foreign Legal Periodicals --a multilingual index to articles and book reviews appearing in approximately 540 legal journals published worldwide.

Le Doctrinal (By IP only from HLSL public terminals)  --indexes almost 200 French language law journals.  

PAIS --indexes the public and social policy literature of public administration, political science, economics, finance, international relations, law, and health care, International in scope, PAIS indexes publications in English, French, German, Italian, Portuguese, and Spanish

Academic Search Premier--a multi-disciplinary database that includes citations and abstracts from over 4,700 scholarly publications

MultiDataOnline--provides full text from and bibliographic citations to selected newspapers and periodicals from the Arab world in Arabic, English, and French. MultiDataOnline consists of five databases: 1."General News" provides full text and covers 52 dailies and weeklies since 1994; 2. "Specialized Periodicals" provides bibliographic citations from more than 225 specialized Arabic periodicals since 1920; 3. "Reviews" provides full text book reviews from more than 250 newspapers and magazines in the Arab world from 1998; 4. "Theses" provides a subject index to theses submitted to 21 Lebanese institutions of higher learning; and, 5. "Index Arabicus" documents the contents of 42 Arabic periodicals published between 1870 and 1969. The database has both Arabic and English interfaces.

Islam in Contemporary Sub-Saharan Africa--The bibliography contains several thousand references to secondary literature in European languages about Islam in contemporary Sub-Saharan Africa, published between 1960 to 2005

Studies on Women and Gender Abstracts--database version of the bi-monthly journal.

Women's Studies International --citations and abstracts are drawn from a variety of essential women's studies databases which range in coverage from classic works & core studies to the latest scholarship in feminist research.

Islamic Law--The Sources

The Sources

The sources of Islamic Law are the Qur'an and the Sunnah (the traditions of the Prophet).   Most of these texts have been digitized in various translations and are available on the web. 

Qu'ran & Hadith

Qur'an:

Qur'an--USC-MSA Compendium of Muslim Texts.  Translations by Yusufali, Pickthall, & Shakir.   Also allows searching of the text. 
 

Hadith Collections:

Sunnah and Hadith--USC-MSA Compendium of Muslim Texts.  Includes Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Da'ud, & Makik.  Searching also an option. 

In addition to the web collections above, the Harvard University Libraries hold tremendous collections on the sources--in Arabic and Persian as well as Western European Languages.   Please consult HOLLIS or a reference librarian for further assistance. 

Finding Islamic Family Law

Laws, Codes & Commentaries

Muslim Family Law: Sources, Codes, & Commentaries

A good overview of the family law system along with such useful information as the school of fiqh followed in each country can be found at the Islamic Law Family Law Study at Emory Law School http://www.law.emory.edu/ifl/index2.html

If you read German, the multi-volume loose-leaf, Internationales Ehe- und Kindschaftsrecht has good translations for most countries. Located in ILS on the 4th floor at  K670 .F47x 1983.

Other treatises to consult:
Islamic family law in a changing world : a global resource book. (Abdullahi A. An-Na’im, ed.)    Islamic Ref KBP540 .I85x 2002 [Copies 1-2]

Tahir Mahmood. Statutes of personal law in Islamic countries: history, texts and analysis. Islamic Ref  KBP540.32.M346 A37 1995

Dawoud El Alami & Doreen Hinchcliffe. Islamic marriage and divorce laws of the Arab world. Islamic Ref  KMC160 .E4 1996

David  Pearl. Muslim family law. KBP540.95 .P43 1998 

Lynn Welchman.. Women and Muslim family laws in Arab states : a comparative overview of textual development and advocacy KBP550.32.W45 A39 2007

The basic list of laws for each country was taken from Reynolds & Flores, Foreign Law Guide: Current Sources of Codes and Basic Legislation in Jurisdictions in the World. The online version is available from any public computer in the Harvard Law School Library at http://www.foreignlawguide.com.

Afghanistan

  • Civil Code, sections 36–50, 56–59, 117–130 (maintenance), 131–216 (dissolution, separation) and 217–263 (children).
  • Civil Code, sections 56–336. German translation of the family law in the Civil Code in Internationales Ehe- und Kindschaftsrecht.
  • Juvenile code (rights of children, their protection and treatment in the criminal justice system). Available as a background document on the website of the Conference of the Rule of Law in Afghanistan at http://www.rolafghanistan.esteri.it/ConferenceRol.
  • Madanī qānūn: da Afghānistān Jamhūrī Dawlat rasmī khprawanah. (kitāb 1-4), 1355 [1976] 

Algeria

  • Code de la famille. Loi 11 of 9 Jun 1984 in Journal officiel 12 Jun 1984. German translation of sections 1–48 in Internationales Ehe und Kindschaftsrecht. This is actually Book I of the Civil Code.  The 1984 law has been reformed (sections 3–72) by Loi of 4 May 2005 (approving Ordonnance 2 of 24 Feb 2005, i.e., sections 73–165 on support and succession) have not been affected by the 2005 reforms. Selections on marriage and affinity translated in Statutes of personal law in Islamic countries: history, texts and analysis. Italian translation in Le leggi del diritto di famiglia negli stati arabi del Nord Africa. French text and portion in English translation on the website of Lexalgeria at http://lexalgeria.net/. French text on Amazigh World at http://www.amazighworld.net/countries/algeria (click on Documents). This is the only French text of the Code de famille as of 1984, with amendments to sections 3–72 made by the 2005 law. German translation of the 2005 amendments in 58 Das Standesamt 301 (2005). Official French text, with amendments through 2005, on the Portal du Droit Algerie at http://www.droit.mjustice.dz/.
  • Code of Civil Procedure of 2008 , sections 423–499 (procedure in family matters, i.e., divorce, filiation, guardianship, etc.).
  • Ordonnance 20 of 19 Feb 1970 (civil status).Code civil: texte intégral du code mis à jour et jurisprudence./Qānūn al-Madanī. 
  • al-Wajīz fī sharḥ Qānūn al-Usrah al-Jazā’irī : muqaddimah, al-khiṭbah, al-zawāj, al-ṭalāq, al-mīrāth, al-waṣ'yah.
  • Le droit algérien de la famille. 
  • Loi 12 of 29 Dec 2010 (protection of senior citizens, rights of aged persons and obligations of their families) in Journal Officiel 2010 no. 79.

Bahrain

  • Personal law and family law is not codified. It is governed by the Shari’a, although the Shari’a courts are regulated by the 1971 Judiciary law. There is no personal status in Bahrain.
  •  Decree 45 of 2007 (procedure for recordation in connection with marriage and personal status) in Gazette11 Oct 2007. German translation in Internationales Ehe- und Kindschaftsrecht and in Das Standesamt 117 (2008).
  • Law 19 of 27 May 2009 (issuing the law on family relations) in Gazette4 Jun 2009. Sections 1–69 (marriage, including support, responsibility and sections 70–145 (divorce and separation) German translation in Internationales Ehe- und Kindschaftsrecht.
  • Ordinance 7 of 1986 (introducing the law on guardianship of property of minors) in Gazette3 Apr 1986. German translation in Internationales Ehe- und Kindschaftsrecht.
  • Law 58 of 2009 (rights and protections of senior citizens) in Gazette24 Dec 2009.

Bangladesh

  • Divorce act of 1869 in Bangladesh Code [Rev.Ed.] vol. 3. Divorce (amendment) act. English analysis and even translation in English of act as proposed on the Law Commission’s website at http://lawcommissionbangladesh.org/ (click on Reports and then scroll to 2006).
  • Maintenance orders enforcement act of 1921 in Bangladesh Code [Rev.Ed.] vol. 7.
  • Hindu women’s rights to property act of 1937 in Bangladesh code, vol. 11.
  • Muslim personal law and administration of justice (Shariat) application act of 1937 in Bangladesh code, vol. 11.
  • Muslim family laws ordinance VIII of 1961 and Muslim family laws rules 10 of Jul 1961.
  • Dissolution of Muslim marriages act of 1939 in Pakistan Code vol. 9. Reenacted and modified by the Muslim family laws (Amendment) ordinance 1985.
  • Obaidul Huq Chowdhury's hand book of Muslim family laws : with upto date amendments and exhaustive annotations. 

Egypt

  • Law 100 of 1 Jul 1985 (marriage, divorce, maintenance and personal status). Amends Law 25 of 1929 and confirms abrogation of amendments introduced by Law 44 of 1979. Consolidated text translated in Islamic law and society 116 (1994).
  • Civil Code, sections 1–51 (marriage, divorce and family relations). Translated in Business laws of Egypt. German translation in Internationales Ehe- und Kindschaftsrecht.
  • Law 1 of 2000 (liberalizes the law on divorce and recognizes the right of a woman to obtain a divorce, providing the restitution of the dowry to the husband and abandonment of any alimony and regulating litigation in matters of personal status) in Gazette 29 Jan 2000. Introduces entirely new procedures simplifying the law of divorce (Law of Khal).
  • Law 10 of 2004 (establishing the system of family courts, both original and appellate). English translation of law and regulations available for purchase on specific order from MELES at http://www.egyptlaws.com. Replaces Law 462 of 1955 and extends to all jurisdictions governed by Law 1 of 2000 (above).
  • Code of Civil Procedure (code of procedure in civil and commercial matters), sections 859–867, 891–933 and 969–998 (procedure in family matters). Law 126 of 1951 of 15 Aug 1951. German translation in Internationales Ehe- und Kindschaftsrecht.
  • Decree law 119 of 30 Jul 1952 (guardianship). German translation in Internationales Ehe- und Kindschaftsrecht.
  • Law 4 of 2005 (custody of children after divorce).
  • Law 12 of 1996 (law of the child and penal treatment of juveniles). Replacing Law 31 of 1974 (juveniles).
  • al-Lā’iḥah al-tanfīdhīyah li-Qānūn al-Aḥwāl al-Shakhṣīyah al-Jadīd / min I’dād Anwar al-‘Arabī. 
  • Majmū’at al-aḥwāl al-shakhṣ'yah fī ḍaw’ al-fiqh wa-al-qaḍā’ / ‘Abd al-Ḥamīd al-Shawāribī. 
  • Egypt and Its Laws. Nathalie Bernard-Maugiron & Baudouin Eupret eds. (2002)  (Ch. 13).
  • Mawsū'at al-aḥkām al-shar’īyah fī al-zawāj wa-al-ṭalāq wa-al-khul’ : dirāsah ta’īlīyah muqāranah fī ḍaw’ al-madhāhib al-arba’ah wa-al-qawānīn al-waḍ’īyah.

India

Iran

  • Civil Code, sections 1,195–1,202 (family relations), 1,121–1,157 (divorce) and 956–975 (persons). Translated in Commercial laws of the Middle East: Iran and Civil code of Iran [1928–1935], which latter also translates the Family protection act of 1967. The code, with 1991 amendments, translated in Civil code of Iran and Business laws of Iran.
  • Civil Code, sections 1,034–1,255 (family and marital relations). German translation, as of 2002, in Internationales Ehe- und Kindschaftsrecht.
  • Law of 19 Nov 1992 (reforming the law on divorce) in Gazette 10 Dec 1992. German translation in Internationales Ehe- und Kindschaftsrecht. Implementing ordinance to section 1,082 of the Civil Code, 14 May 1998.
  • Law of 4 Feb 1975 (protection of the family). German translation in Internationales Ehe- und Kindschaftsrecht.
  • Law on protection of children and youth of 2004.
  • Separate laws govern the civil status and personal relationships of religious minorities in Iran: Zoroastrians (family law statute, actually officially recognized norms); Armenians (family law statute of 1 Sep 1945); Roman Catholics (norms). German translation of all in Internationales Ehe- und Kindschaftsrecht.
  • Qavānīn va muqarrarāt-i marbūṭ bih khānavādah : bā ākharīn iṣlā'iyah’hā va ilḥ'qāt. 
  • The civil code of Iran. KMH494.31928 .A52 2007
  • Hassan Siahpoosh. Das Familien- und Erbrecht im Iran. 
  • Qānūn-i Madanī-i Jumhūrī-i Islāmī-i Īrān : (Inglīsī - Fārsī) va (Fārsī - Inglīsī) KMH494.31991 .A52 2001

Iraq

  • Civil Code. Translated in Business laws of Iraq.
  • Civil Code, sections 15–33. German translation in Internationales Ehe- und Kindschaftsrecht.
  • Law 188 of 30 Dec 1959 (personal status). Amended by Law 81 of 1985. German translation in Internationales Ehe- und Kindschaftsrecht. Law 188, as amended by Law 90 of 1987, substantially translated in Statutes of personal law in Islamic countries: history, texts and analysis. Amended by Laws 19 and 21 of 2000.
  • Marāji’ al-qānūn al-madanī al-‘Irāqī. 
  • Ḥayyāwī, Nabīl ʻAbd al-Raḥmān.. Qānūn al-madanī raqm 40 li-sanat 1951 wa-taʻdīlātuh : maʻa fihris hijāʼī li-mawādd wa-aḥkām al-qānūn. KMJ494.31951 .A52 2008

Jordan

  • Civil Code, sections 12–187. German translation in Internationales Ehe- und Kindschaftsrecht.
  • Law 9 of 2001 (civil and personal status, including the civil registry) in Gazette 2001 no. 4,470. In force 18 Mar 2001. Replaces the Code of personal status of 1976 as amended.
  • Family law and relations covering personal status, marriage, divorce, dowry, guardianship and the civil registry are governed by two laws: Law 61 of 1976 (personal status) (reformed by Law 82 of 2001) and Law 9 of 2001 (family relations) in Gazette 2001 no. 4,470. In force 18 Mar 2001. Law 9 of 2001 reforms aspects of Law 61 of 1976 that is in German translation in Internationales Ehe- und Kindschaftsrecht.
  • Qānūn al-Aḥwāl al-Shakhṣīyah : qānūn muʾaqqat raqm 2001
  • al-Qānūn al-madanī al-Urdunī (2001) 
  • Aḥkām al-zawāj fī al-sharī’ah al-Islāmīyah : dirāsah fiqhīyah muqāranah bi-qānūn al-aḥwāl al-shakhṣīyah al-Urdunī (1998)

Kuwait

  • Code on personal status. Law 51 of 7 Jul 1984. Selections translated in Statutes of personal law in Islamic countries: history, texts and analysis. German translation in Internationales Ehe- und Kindschaftsrecht. Translated in Islamic marriage and divorce laws of the Arab world
  • Kuwait. Qānūn al-aḥwāl al-shakhṣīyah. (2004) KMN54 .A28 2004x 
  • Jundī, Aḥmad Naṣr. al-Aḥwāl al-shakhṣīyah fī al-qānūn al-Kuwaytī : taʻlīq ʻalá al-nuṣūṣ. KMN54 .J86 2010
  • Ghandūr, Aḥmad. al-Aḥwāl al-shakhṣīyah fī al-tashrīʻ al-Islāmī : maʻa bayān qānūn al-aḥwāl al-shakhṣīyah lil-qaḍāʼ fī maḥākim al-Kuwayt. KBP540.32.G435 A35 2013
  • Limsāwī, Ashraf Fāyiz. Mawsūʻat Qānūn al-Aḥwāl al-Shakhṣīyah al-kuwaytī raqm 51 li-sanat 1984 wa-iḥkām al-madhhab al-Jaʻfarī. KMN54.A311984 L56 2007

Lebanon

  • Family law is governed by varying sets of rules depending upon the “personal status” of the individuals involved and then upon the various aspects of laws to be applied. Thus, even after status is determined (Muslim or non-Muslim), there is a further division for non-Muslims, in that matters of marriage, divorce, custody and support fall within a religious jurisdiction, but inheritance falls within the general civil jurisdiction.
  • Family relations for the non-Muslim communities (Christian and Jewish sects, of which there are several) are governed by Loi of 2 Apr 1951 (sets out the jurisdictions of the various courts and tribunals and their powers). There is an appellate hierarchy within Lebanon, except for Roman Catholics, whose court of final appeal is the Sacred Roman Rota.
  • For the Muslim communities, family matters (extending to inheritance and wills) are regulated by Loi of 16 Jul 1962 (for both the Sunni and Shi’a sects). Also known as the “Shar code.” A separate Loi of 5 Mar 1960 regulates such matters for the Druze community. The Alawi was also accorded separate status as a result of the Sep 1989 TA’if constitutional revisions. This was codified in Loi 449 of 17 Aug 1995 in Gazette 24 Aug 1995 (created a family court for the Alawi community).
  • In addition to the laws governing the jurisdiction and powers of the religious tribunals, there is a separate range of laws on “personal status” and its registration, i.e., the declaration of whichever community a person regards himself as a member. This is the first step leading to the respective judicial authority which makes rules governing marriage, divorce, custody, adoption (there is no adoption in the Muslim communities) and inheritance (only for the Muslim communities). Inheritance for the Christian and Jewish communities is governed by the civil law.
  • Loi of 7 Dec 1951, “Inscriptions des actes d’état civil” (civil and/or personal status) and a separate Druze “Code de statut personelle” of 24 Feb 1948 with its regulations of 1949. The 1951 law available in a consolidated French translation in 35 L’Argus (1989).
  • Loi of 2 Apr 1951 (jurisdictions and authority of the various Christian and Jewish tribunals). Available in a consolidated French translation, as of 24 Jul 1996, along with regulations, Arreté 60/LR of 13 Mar 1999, in 45 L’Argus no. 4 (1999).
  • The separate marriage and divorce laws of 1948 and 1962 governing the Muslim communities translated in Islamic marriage and divorce laws of the Arab world. One can also see the portions of the Ottoman legislation of 1917, adopted in Lebanon 1941–1962, sections of which are translated in Statutes of personal law in Islamic countries: history, texts and analysis.
  • All family law affecting all sects and communities analyzed in detail in German in Internationales Ehe- und Kindschaftsrecht.
  • Qawānīn wa-nuṣ'ṣ wa-aḥkām al-aḥwāl al-shakhṣ'yah wa-tanẓ'm al-ṭawā'if al-Islāmīyah fī Lubnān (2003)
  • Yāghī, Akram Ḥasan. Qawānīn al-aḥwāl al-shakhṣīyah : tashrīʻan wa-fiqhan wa-qaḍāʼan. KMP54 .Y34 2007
  • Gannagé, Pierre. Le pluralisme des statuts personnels dans les états multicommunautaires : droit libanais et droits proche-orientaux (2001)
  • Statut personnel: textes en vigueur au Liban (1970)
  • Statut personnel et compétence judiciaire des communautés confessionnelles au Liban: étude juridique compare (1993)

Libya

  • Law 7 CGP of 27 Jun 1988. Reforming Law 36 of 10 Sep 1968 (civil status) in Gazette 4 Aug 1988.
  • Law 10 of 1984 (marriage and divorce). Translated in Islamic marriage and divorce laws of the Arab world. Reformed in part by Loi 22 CPG of 1 Sep 1991 in Gazette 9 Nov 1991 and Loi 9 of 1994. Italian translation in Le leggi del diritto di famiglia negli stati arabi del Nord Africa.
  • al-Zawāj wa-al-ṭalāq fī al-Qānūn al-Lībī wa-asānīduhu al-shar'īyah (1998) 

Malaysia

  • Administration of family law enactment of 1985.
  • Islamic family law (federal territory) act 303 of 1984. Amended by Act A902 of 1994.
  • Law reform (marriage and divorce) act 164 of 1976. Reprinted in 1981 in Golden’s.. Marriage and divorce proceeding rules in Gazette 7 Feb 1980.
  • Maintenance orders (facilities for enforcement) act of 1949. Revised by Act 34 of 1971 in Golden’s.
  • Child act A611 of 2001. Consolidating and amending laws relating to children, including the Child protection act of 1991. Repeals Juvenile Courts act of 1997 and Women and girls protection act of 1973. The Child act establishes the Court for Children and deals with children in need of care and protection as well as delinquent children.
  • Married women act of 1957. Revised by Act 450 of 1990 in Golden’s. Amended by Act A893 of 1994.
  • Married women and children (maintenance) act of 1950. Revised by Act 263 of 1981 in Golden’s.
  • Married women and children (enforcement of maintenance) act of 1968. Revised by Act 356 of 1988 in Golden’s.
  • Islamic family law enactment of 1993 (Sabah).
  • Domestic violence act 521 of 1994. Reprinted in 23/24 Annual review of population law 387 (1996/97).
  • The truly complex structure and sources of Malaysian family and personal status law (marriage, divorce, maintenance, adoption, guardianship and distribution) depend on a confusing and shifting base of Malaysian statute law, Malaysian jurisprudence, Islamic and customary law, colonial statutes and even pre- and post-independence British jurisprudence. A well-organized guide and monograph can be highly recommended. Family law in Malaysia. Mimi Kamariah Majid, Kuala Lumpur, Malayan Law Journal, etc., 1999 (a translation and update of the author’s Undang-Undang Keluarga di Malaysia).
  • Statutes on family law : with relevant subsidiary legislation.
  • Family law in Malaysia.
  • Marriage and divorce : law reform within Islamic framework. 

Mauritania

  • Loi 52 of 19 July 2001 (Code de statut personnel) in Journal officiel 15 Aug 2001. In effect, this is a family and domestic relations code covering: marriage (both civil and customary), sections 1–81; dissolution, sections 82–139; maintenance and support, sections 140–175; legal capacity and guardianship, sections 176–202; inheritance and succession, sections 203–310. Full text in French and Arabic (duplicated), with English summaries, at http://www.glin.gov/. Full French text, as scanned from the Journal officiel, on LegiMauritanie at http://www.legimauritanie.net/. Abrogates and replaces all earlier laws on civil status, etc., particularly the major parts of Loi 19 of 19 June 1996 which dealt with: (Book I) marriage and dissolution; (Book II) support and alimony; (Book III) guardianship and inheritance. The sections of the 1996 law on civil registration have not been abrogated, but have been amended by the 2001 law.
  • Code de l’état civil mauritanien. Loi 20 of 19 Jun 1996 (a special supplementary law instituting a patronymic system into family names) in Journal officiel 30 Jun 1996.
  • Journal officiel de la République islamique de Mauritanie.

Morocco

  • Mudawana. Law 2003-70 (code of personal status, i.e., family code covering marriage (forbidding polygamy), rights of children, divorce, cohabitation, guardianship, etc.). Promulgated by Dahir 1-04-22 of 3 Feb 2004 in  Bulletin officiel 3 Feb 2004 (Arabic text only). In force 5 Feb 2004 when the 1957/58 code ceased to have force and the Dahir of 4 Sep 1915 was rendered null and void. At present the French texts of the 1958 and 2004 codes are on the website of Amazigh World at http://www.amazighworld.net/countries/morocco/ (click on Documents and then scroll down to Code de la femme for full text, not just pertaining to women). A French text of the 2004 code was issued unofficially by the Ministry of Justice in Feb 2005.
  • Loi 15-01 of 13 Jun 2002 (protection of abandoned children (Kafala)) in  Bulletin officiel 5 Sep 2002. Replaces the 1993 law on the same subject. Regulated by Décret 2-03-600 of 7 Jun 2004 in  Bulletin officiel 1 Jul 2004.
  • Loi 37-99 (registration and recordation of civil status). Reforming and consolidating legislation on civil status dating back to 1915 and including laws that had fallen into desuetude, such as the 1913 law on civil status of French persons and aliens. Implemented by Décret 2-99-655 of 9 Oct 2003. Both the law and the implementing regulations in Bulletin officiel 7 Nov 2003.
  • Sharḥ mudawwanat al-usrah (2006) 
  • Le nouveau Code de la famille : avec les textes d'application. (2006) 
  • Guide pratique du code de la famille.(2005)
  • Aḥkām al-fiqh al-Islāmī al-‘amalīyah fī masā’il al-Aḥwāl al-Shakhṣīyah (2000)
  • La Moudawana, le nouveau Droit de la famille au Maroc: présentation et analyse: texte intégral en français. 

Oman

  • Sultani decree 32 of 1997 (law of personal status, i.e., essentially a code on family relations). This regulates most aspects of marriage, separation and divorce (sections 15–137) and guardianship (sections 138–197). German translation in Internationales Ehe und Kindschaftsrecht. Implemented by Sultani decree 66 of 1999.
  • Sultani decree 58 of 1 Nov 1993 (application of laws governing marriage between an Omani citizen and a foreign person). German translation in Internationales Ehe und Kindschaftsrecht.
  • Law on marriage and personal status amended by Royal decree 32 of 1997.
  • Royal decree 66 of 1999 (creating and regulating the civil registry).
  • Qānūn al-Awḥ'l al-Shakh'īyah. (1997)
  • Muḥammad ibn Yūsuf Aṭṭafayyish. Sharḥ kitāb al-Nīl wa-shifā’ al-‘alīl. Islamic Ref. BP195.I3  T46325 1986
  • Aḥmad Naṣr al-Jundī.. Sharḥ qānūn al-aḥwāl al-shakhṣīyah fī Salṭanat ʻUmān (2008)

Pakistan

  • Muslim family laws ordinance VIII of 1961. Full text on the website of the Pakistan lawyer at http://www.pakistanlawyer.com and on SAARCLAW (approached through the Vakilno website) at http://www.vakilno1.com/. Rules in Gazette Extraordinary issue 20 Jul 1961. Partly invalidated as “un-Islamic” by an unreported(?) decision of 5 Jan 2000 of the Federal Shariat Court.
  • Dissolution of Muslim marriages act VIII of 1939. Full text on the website of the Pakistan lawyer at http://www.pakistanlawyer.com and on SAARCLAW (approached through the Vakilno website) at http://www.vakilno1.com/.
  • Family courts act (West Pakistan) XXXV of 1964 and Rules in Gazette Extraordinary issue 2 Nov 1965. Amended by Act VIII of 1997 in Gazette 26 Apr 1997.
  • Muslim personal law (Shariat) application act of 1962. Applies to Punjab, Sind, Northwest Frontier Province and Baluchistan). Full text on the website of the Pakistan lawyer at http://www.pakistanlawyer.com and on SAARCLAW (approached through the Vakilno website) at http://www.vakilno1.com/.
  • Offence of Zina (enforcement of Hudood) ordinance VII of 1979.
  • Divorce act IV of 1869.
  • Parsi marriage and divorce act III of 1936.
  • Married women’s property act III of 1874.
  • The code of Muslim family laws : amendments and case law up-to-date (2006)
  • Muslim family laws ordinance. (1997)

Qatar

  • Law 22 of 2006 (family law). German translation in Internationales Ehe- und Kindschaftsrecht. Arabic text only on the website of the State Council for Family Affairs at http://www.scfa.gov.qa/. This also creates a special Family Court which applies Shari’a. Sections 59–85 (separation, etc.).
  • Law 23 of 2002 (establishing the Supreme Council for Family Affairs). Implemented by Emiri decree 15 of 2009.
  • See Ch. 1, Dawoud El Alami & Doreen Hinchcliffe. Islamic marriage and divorce laws of the Arab world.
  • http://www.almeezan.qa/LawsByYear.aspx?language=en

Saudi Arabia

  • There is no family “law” as such in Saudi Arabia, except for the law on civil status. Marriage, divorce and other matters of domestic relations are governed by Islamic law,
  • see H. Krüger, “Grundzüge des saudi-arabischen Ehe- und Personeastandsrects” in 58 Das Standesamt 346 (2005). Royal decree M/7 of 20-4-1407AH of 9 Jan 1987 (civil status). Translated in Business laws of Saudi Arabia.
  • See Ch. 1, Dawoud El Alami & Doreen Hinchcliffe. Islamic marriage and divorce laws of the Arab world. 

Somalia

  • Family code. Law 23 of 11 Jan 1975. Substantially reprinted in Internationales Ehe- und Kindschaftsrecht

Sudan

  • Civil Code and Shari’a.
  • Manshur 17 of 1916 and Manshur 28 of 1927 (maintenance and judicial divorce). Selections translated in Statutes of personal law in Islamic countries: history, texts and analysis.
  • Manshur 54 of 1960 (marriage-guardianship). Translated in Statutes of personal law in Islamic countries: history, texts and analysis.
  • Muslim family law of 1991. Reprinted in Internationales Ehe- und Kindschaftsrecht¤ and 18 Annual review of population law appendix 310 (1991).
  • Qawānīn al-Sūdān. 

Syria

  • Civil Code, sections 5–53. German translation in Internationales Ehe- und Kindschaftsrecht.
  • “Family code” (code de statut personnel). Law 59 of 17 Sep 1953. Amended by Law 34 of 31 Dec 1975 in Gazette 21 Jan 1976. Translated in Islamic marriage and divorce laws of the Arab world. Selected sections translated in Statutes of personal law in Islamic countries: history, texts and analysis. German translation in Internationales Ehe- und Kindschaftsrecht
  • al-Qānūn al-madanī al-ṣ'dir bi-al-marsūm al-tasrhī’ī raqm 84 tārīkh 18 Ayyār 1949 (2002). 
  • Majmū’at qawānīn al-aḥwāl al-shakh'īyah al-nāfidhah fī Sūrīyah ma’a al-uṣūl wa-al-bayyināt : wa-tashmul Qānūn al-Aḥwāl al-Shakhṣiyah ... jama’ahā wa-ḍabaṭahā wa-nassaqahā Muḥammad Fahr Shaqfah. (1996)
  • Loi sur le status personnel promulguée par le decret legislatif no 59 du 17 Septembre 1953 

Tunisia

  • Code du statut personnel. Law 13 of 13 Aug 1956 in Journal officiel 17 Aug 1956. Latest version in Journal officiel 21 Jan 1976. Last amended 12 Jul 1993. Selections translated in Statutes of personal law in Islamic countries: history, texts and analysis. Law of 1956 translated in Islamic marriage and divorce laws of the Arab world. Italian translation in Le leggi del diritto di famiglia negli stati arabi del Nord Africa. Current consolidated French text at http://www.jurisitetunisie.com/.
  • Law 67 of 1958 (guardianship). Amended by Law 69 of 1959. Translated in Statutes of personal law in Islamic countries: history, texts and analysis.¤ Current consolidated French text at http://www.jurisitetunisie.com/.
  • Loi 3 of 1 Aug 1957 (civil registry) in Journal officiel 30 Jul–2 Aug 1957. Amended by Loi 71 of 4 Jul 1958 in Journal officiel 1–4 Jul 1958. Current consolidated French text at http://www.jurisitetunisie.com/.
  • Code on protection of children. Loi 92 of 9 Nov 1995 in Journal officiel 10 Nov 1995. Current consolidated French text at http://www.jurisitetunisie.com/. Substantially translated in German in Internationales Ehe- und Kindschaftsrecht. Summarized in 21/22 Annual review of population law 694 (1998).
  • Loi 91 of 9 Nov 1998 (regime of marital property and its dissolution). Current consolidated French text at http://www.jurisitetunisie.com/.
  • Loi 65 of 5 Jul 1993 (creating guarantee fund for support or alimony in cases of divorce). Current consolidated French text at http://www.jurisitetunisie.com/
  • Code du statut personnel/Majallat al-aḥwāl al-shakhṣ'yah 
  • al-Judhūr al-tārīkhīyah li-Majallat al-Aḥwāl al-Shakh'īyah : irhā'āt ruʾyah jadīdah. 

Turkey

  • Civil Code, sections 27–46 (persons). German translation in Internationales Ehe- und Kindschaftsrecht.
  • Civil Code, sections 218–291 (marital property and obligations), 292–300 (divorce and separation) and 323–372 (parents and children). German translation in Internationales Ehe- und Kindschaftsrecht.
  • Ordinance 5,100 of 24 Jul 1965 (regulations on family relations, inheritance and guardianship).
  • Law 4,320 of 14 Jan 1998 (protection of the family) in Resmî gazete 17 Jan 1988.
  • Law 1,587 of 5 May 1972, Nüfus kanunu (personal status).
  • In the new Turkish Civil Code (2001), the sections dealing with family law begin at section 118.
  • Dürerü'l hukkâm şerhu mecelleti'l-ahkâm. 
  • Mustafa Argun Köteli, Evliliğin hukuki niteliği ve evlilik dışı beraberlikler. 

United Arab Emirates

  • Civil Code, sections 71–94. Translated in Business laws of the United Arab Emirates and Business laws of the Middle East: United Arab Emirates.
  • Civil Code of the United Arab Emirates. 
  • See Ch. 1, Dawoud El Alami & Doreen Hinchcliffe. Islamic marriage and divorce laws of the Arab world.

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