This guide brings together a selection of information and key resources to assist you with your research for GOV 1312: Women in Politics taught by Dr. Sparsha Saha. Please get in touch with any questions that come up.
Reading for Contexts, Backgrounds and Perspectives
A nationally recognized, leading source of scholarly research and current data about American women’s political participation and under-representation in political leadership. The Center for American Women and Politics is housed at the Eagleton Institute of Politics at Rutgers University.
Sections of CAWP worth exploring include:
- Research and Scholarship: books, book chapters, studies, and published articles, grouped into major categories like "Candidate Recruitment." and "Women Voters and the Gender Gap."
- Facts, factsheets and historical data on women candidates and officeholders.
- A Research Inventory of current and past research in the field of women and American politics aims to identify strategies that can be used to elect more women and to determine whether there are important research questions yet to be addressed.
The Barbara Lee Family Foundation advances women’s equality and representation in American politics (as well as in contemporary art).
The Foundation has studied and published research about every woman’s gubernatorial race since 1998. Through strategic partnerships and capacity building via grants and endowments, the Foundation also aims to help women gain essential knowledge and tools to meet the challenges of campaigning, including best practices for ads.
Part of the National Council of State Legislatures, the WLN is a professional development organization to which every female state legislator in the 50 states, United States territories, and the District of Columbia. belongs.The mission of the Women's Legislative Network is to promote the participation, empowerment, and leadership of women legislators.
The site includes a state suffrage history timeline, current and historical statistical snapshots of women legislators by state, a state-level directory of women's caucuses, commissions, and committees, and other information.
Gender Parity Index (Represent Women)
Overview, comparative/longitudinal data, and statistical snapshots of each state.
A project of the nonpartisan Parity Project, dedicated to changing the face of U.S. politics, this free publication compiles and distils research on women candidates and elected officeholders.
Not to be confused with a Harvard Library research database that's similarly named, this website was joint project of the CAWP and Barbara Lee Family Foundation during the 2018 midterms. It aimed to monitor and analyze the numbers, successes, and strategies of women candidates. While no longer updated,it Includes a research bibliography of books and articles, as well as some multimedia, graphics, and candidate lists.
News sources provide an obvious way to track the rise of candidates into political prominence, trace coverage of campaigns, elections, and issues, and find out how they fare in the court of public opinion. Editorial opinions/candidate endorsements and, of course, published interviews with candidates, their supporters and/or opponents or transcripts of these conversations can also be revealing. Good databases for information of this kind include:
It covers more than 3000 newspapers from around the globe, most in English (or English translation). Coverage varies by title but usually dates from the 1980s forward. Nexis Uni is also good for searching transcripts of major TV and radio news broadcasts (including BBC and NPR).
TIP: This database does not include contents of the Boston Globe or WSJ. See Factiva, below, for access to these titles, if you need them.)
Produced by the Dow Jones company, Factiva contains content from more than 200 countries (and in 28 languages, though English predominates). Material is drawn from newspapers, news sites, newswires, TV and radio transcripts. Full-text coverage varies by title, but is generally better from 1980 forward. Factiva's major competitor is Nexis Uni.
By default, Factiva searches only the most recent three months. Change the time frame if you need to.
By default, Factiva returns results in reverse chronological order (most recent item first). Resort by relevance if you need to.
Produced and maintained by citizen labor (conservative and liberal), Vote Smart's stated mission is to provide free, factual, unbiased information on candidates and elected officials to all Americans. Volunteers research and compile information on the backgrounds and records of thousands of political candidates and elected officials to discover their voting records, campaign contributions, biographical data (including their work history) and evaluations of them generated by over 400 national and 1300 state special interest groups.
Often, you can also find transcripts of speeches and public statements on issues.
This national resource for women in politics was created by Ellen R. Malcolm in 1985 to fund campaigns for pro-choice Democratic women, and strategically change the balance of power in our government. (The name “EMILY's List” was an acronym for "Early Money Is Like Yeast" [i.e., it makes the dough rise]. The saying is a reference to a convention of political fundraising that receiving major donations early in a race is helpful in attracting other, later donors.) A source of information on female candidates at the local, state, and federal level endorsed by the organization.
Short biographies of members, listed by state or district, together with the the member's dates of service, committee memberships, staff assistants, contact information.
Women in Congress (Office of the Historian, US House of Representatives)
Brief biographical sketches of all current and former women members, with bibliographical references and (when appropriate) information on manuscript collections. Also provides a detailed set of historical essays on women senators and representatives over the alst 100 years.
IMPORTANT TO NOTE: the Introductory chapter, "Women in Congress" has both a section on historiography (which might help you discover some fo the significant scholarly work already done on the topic, broadly) and on the process of researching (which might help you identify sites for some important primary source exploration).
A project of the Center for Responsive Politics, Open Secrets is the most comprehensive resource available for federal campaign contributions, lobbying data and analysis. It includes a Donor Lookup database, ways of discovering election spending figures on the presidential and congressional levels (including some historical data), and more. Its Reports page contains several gender-themed studies.
The National Institute on Money in Politics collects reports submitted to agencies in every state by all candidates for statewide office, the legislature, and state Supreme Court; major political party committees; ballot measure committees; independent spending; and lobbying expenditures. The data is made freely available via Follow the Money, along with reports and analysis.
A collection of tools that make it possible for citizens to track what is happening in their state's capitol by aggregating information from all 50 states, Washington, D.C., and Puerto Rico.
Using the site is simple: enter a U.S. address or select a state to start to research bills, review voting records, contact elected officials and more.
SOME EXAMPLES OF STATE ELECTION DATA and POLLING INSTRUMENTS
- Historical Data on Voting and Elections (1974-2018)]
- Historical Candidate Data, Citizens Clean Elections Commission
- Colorado Election Results and Data (Office of the Colorado Secretary of State)
- Colorado on Ballotpedia
- Colorado Public Opinion
- Colorado Political Climate Survey
- Elections and Voting, Bureau of Corporations, Elections and Commissiions, (Office of the Maine Secretary of State)
- Maine on Ballotpedia
- Maine Public Opinion Research
- Election Research and Statistics (Office of the Secretary of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts)
- Massachusetts Election Statistics Online: a searchable database of Massachusetts historical election information contained in Public Document 43
- Center for Public Opinion (UMass Lowell)
- Election Results, 1962-present (Office of the Nevada Secretary of State)
The Nevada Independent: Polls (Nevada News Bureau, Inc.)
- Election History: Oregon Statewide Election Results, 2004-2018 (Office of the Oregon Secretary of State
- Voter Registrations and Elections Participation Statistics (Office of the Oregon Secretary of State)
- Oregon on Ballotpedia
- Oregon – Values and beliefs
RESEARCHING PUBLIC OPINION
- Public Opinion Resources: An excellent guide on polling resources available via the Harvard Library (and beyond).
Scholarly Conversations: Compass Points
- Annual Reviews offers comprehensive, timely collections of critical reviews written by leading scholars.
- Oxford Bibliographies authoritative guide to current scholarship, written and reviewed by academic experts, with original commentary and annotations. Sources are rigorously peer reviewed and vetted to ensure scholarly accuracy and objectivity.
Citation Searching enables you to find out how many times an article has been cited since it was published. This gives scholars a sense of the impact a publication has had in the field.
- Web of Science is a multidisciplinary database covering the journal literature in the sciences and social sciences. A key feature is the ability to do citation searching in a comprehensive manner.
Every academic discipline has at least one subject database that's considered the disciplinary gold standard -- a reliable, (relatively) comprehensive, and accurate record of the books that scholars are publishing, and the ideas they're debating and discussing in important and influential journals.
- Worldwide Political Science Abstracts
A key database for both deep and broad access to scholarship in this discipline and the subfields that may be useful for your Expos 20 projects: political psychology, political communication, etc.
- America: History and Life
The premier database for scholarship on the history of U.S. and Canada; covers all eras, including contemporary topics.
- Gender Watch
Accesses mainstream scholarly publications on issues related to women, gender roles, identity from a wide range of disciplines; also includes alternative press publications.
A database of U.S. public policy research drawn from over 350 public policy think tanks, nongovernmental organizations, research institutes, university centers, advocacy groups, and other entities. One nice feature of PolicyFile is its ability to browse entities by political leaning (or to limit your results that way, once you've performed a keyword search).
BEST PRACTICES FOR SEARCHING HOLLIS:
- Use quotation marks for phrases: "united states" || "women politicians"
- Connect search terms and phrases explicitly with AND/OR and do so with capital letters:
elections AND candidates AND gender
- Enclose synonyms or interchangeable concepts in parentheses:
(gender OR sexism) AND candidates AND presidential
- Truncate words with an asterisk to pick up alternatives:
politic* will also retrieve politics | political | politician | politicians | politically (etc.)
- Filter your results via right side limit categories. They'll help you sharpen up and whittle down your search results by date, language, resource type, to peer-reviewed articles, and more.
- Take advantage of special system features: always sign in.
- Store the items you want to track down or read later via the icon; save a good search so you can remember what worked.
LIBRARY CATALOG OR EVERYTHING: WHAT'S WITH THOSE OPTIONS?
HOLLIS combines the extensive contents of our library catalog, the record every item owned by every Harvard Library with those of another, large and multidisciplinary database of journal, newspaper, and magazine articles.
When you search "everything" you're searching both of these databases together, at once. For better or for worse, "everything" is our system default.
The broad and panoramic approach to searching HOLLIS can be mind-opening but if you find yourself overwhelmed by either the numbers or types of results your search returns, try one of these options:
- Limit your Everything search results set just to the items listed in the LIBRARY CATALOG.
Your numbers will immediately get smaller. Keep in mind, though, that the results will be heavily weighted toward book-length studies.
- Limit your Everything search results set to items that are identified as PEER REVIEWED ARTICLES.
You'll eliminate newspaper and magazine materials as well as books, of course, but you'll also raise the visibility of scholarly journal articles in what displays.
Peer-reviewed articles are more generally favored as sources for academic assignments.
- Think about limiting your results to publications from the last 5, 10, 15, or 20 years.
By doing so you'll get a snapshot of the most recent research trends and scholarly approaches in a field (or around a particular issue).
Your "default" approach to searching Harvard's catalog, HOLLIS, is probably similar to your Google approach: enter some words, see what comes up, then try again or improve from there. But BROWSING in the catalog is an under-appreciated research strategy, especially when you're trying to discover your interest. It helps you see how writing ABOUT an author, an idea, an event, etc. has been broken down and categorized. So instead of getting the typical list of titles, you see results in terms of sub-topics. Inspiration may lie there!
HOW DO YOU BROWSE?
Open HOLLIS. Click on the link above the search box. Then change the option from AUTHOR to SUBJECT.
WHAT DO RESULTS FROM A BROWSE SEARCH LOOK LIKE?
Click on the image above to find out.
SMART BROWSING TIPS :
- Sometimes, you find your browse terms intuitively -- typing women politicians in the subject browse box for example, would bring you to a top level category. Then, you might note how the first few sub-categorizations appear. These are clues: adding an additional word or phrase to add might even get you closer to a subject heading you're hoping will exist (and save you many pages to click through!).
- Sometimes, you'll find a linked subject string attached to an item record you've found by keyword searching. Clicking on it will lead you to every other item we own that has that same tag. And if the tag leads you a bit off course, remember that you can back up: remove the last word/phrase of a string to get to higher category. OR simply look again at the original item you started with. Perhaps there are other subject terms that work as well--or better -- than the one you chose first.
Helpful Services & Tools
- Research Management and Citation Tools enable you to collect and to organize your sources and to create bibliographies quickly.
- Check Harvard Library Bookmark gets you to online material to which Harvard subscribes.
- Ask a Librarian is our virtual reference service.
- Scan & Deliver is a free electronic document delivery service for Harvard students, faculty and staff.