Many universal human rights treaties have specialized "treaty bodies" (committees of independent experts) that closely follow their implementation and/or compliance. To learn more about those core treaties and their committees, please visit the links below.
Individuals are entitled to file a complaint mechanism called "communication" alleging a violation of treaty rights by their States (in the assumption their state is a party to a particular treaty). This communication will be decided by the committees, as indicated below.
The African Court on Human and Peoples' Rights (ACHPR) was established in 1998. Its mandate is to complement the functions of the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights, a quasi-judicial body that monitors the implementation of the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights and other instruments ratified by the States concerned. For more information about it, please go to the links indicated below.
Together with the Inter-American Commission of Human Rights, the Inter-American Court of Human Rights (IACHR) is dedicated to the protection of human rights within the Inter-American system. While the Commission is a quasi jurisdictional body, the IACHR, established in 1979, resolves contentious cases and gives advisory opinions. For more information about it, please go to the links indicated below.
The European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) should not be confused with the Court of Justice of the European Union. The ECHR was established in 1959.
The ECHR's responsibility is to rule on applications from either individuals or states concerning alleged violations of either civil or political rights recognized by the European Convention on Human Rights.
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The author wants to pay homage to the talented deceased FCIL librarian, Stephen Willes, for the initial version of this research guide.