Before you start collecting citations, take a minute to consider how you are going to organize your Zotero library.
Why would I do this?
Organizing your Zotero library will make it easier for you to quickly locate and use your research material. The most basic way to organize your Zotero library is by creating collections.
How to create a collection
Create a new collection by clicking the folder icon above the library pane.
Create a subcollection by right-clicking on an existing collection and selecting New Subcollection.
When you add items, you will have the option of choosing which collection you want them added to. Items added to collections are also automatically added to My Library.
Tags are keywords you can assign to items that allow you to characterize items and group them together outside of collections.
Tags can be imported from databases along with citation information or they can be added manually.
All tags are searchable through the Zotero search box.
Disable Automatic Tagging
It is highly recommended that you disable automatic tagging. In General Preferences, uncheck the box next to "Automatically tag items with keywords and subject headings." After you disable automatic tagging, your library will only contain tags that you add manually.
Manually Add Tags
To tag items yourself, select an item in Zotero and then select the 'Tags' tab in the column on the right.
Click on 'Add.' Enter the word or phrase you want to use and press Enter.
Tags can be renamed by clicking on them and deleted by using the 'minus' button.
Your tags will now appear in Zotero's bottom left window pane.
Adding Multiple Items to a Tag
You can add items in bulk to an already existing tag by selecting all of the items within a collection that you want to assign that tag and then dragging them onto the tag in the Tag Pane.
You can assign colors to your tags. Zotero has 9 built-in colors, and up to 6 tags in your library can be assigned a color.
Right click on the tag you want to assign a color.
Choose "Assign color" from the popup menu.
Select the color you want and click "set color."
Colored tags appear next to the item title.
To add notes to items in your Zotero library, click on the notes tab in the right pane.
When you click on the notes tab, you can then click "add" to create notes. You can create many notes for a single item.
Create Notes while Browsing the Web
With Zotero, you can also create notes directly from webpages you visit.
- Highlight the text you want to copy into a note.
- Right-click (ctrl-click in OS X) and find the Zotero option in the context menu. (In Firefox, it is labeled "Zotero Connector"; in Chrome, it is labeled "Save to Zotero.")
- Follow the menu to the option to “Create Zotero Item and Note from Selection."
In Firefox, this will take two steps through the menu:
In Chrome, this will take only one further step:
You will now have a new item in your Zotero library, with a note containing the selected text:
Attach PDF Annotations with the Zotfile plugin
Zotfile is a plugin that allows for annotation extraction from (readable) PDFs and facilitates the process of moving and syncing PDFs from your Zotero library to a PDF reader for reading and note-taking.
- Download Zotfile. (Note: You need to do a control/right-click in order to perform a "Save as" on the file - it will not download otherwise.)
- Open Zotero.
- From the Tools menu, select Add-ons.
- Click on the gear button in the upper-right-hand corner of the window that opens.
- Select “Install Add-on from File.”
- Select the Zotfile .xpi file that you saved and open it.
- Restart Zotero.
- Open a PDF from within Zotero.
- Use your PDF reader to highlight or annotate text in the document. (For this to work, text in your PDF needs to be selectable and copyable; on scanned pages that have not been OCRed, for example, highlighting will not work, though annotations in note form may.)
- Save changes and close the PDF.
- In Zotero, right-click/control-click on the PDF and select “Manage attachments” from the context menu, then select “Extract annotations.”
- Zotfile will extract any annotations from the PDF and create a note from the extracted annotations.
Add Citations from HOLLIS
When viewing a search results screen in HOLLIS, Zotero will display this folder icon to the right of the address bar.
Click the folder icon, and a window will open, allowing you to select the HOLLIS records you would like to add to your Zotero library. When you are done selecting, click OK. These HOLLIS records should now be added to your Zotero library.
Note: Bulk adding to Zotero from HOLLIS is only recommended for searches in the Library Catalog. Bulk adding from Everything may result in incomplete metadata for journal articles as well as PDFs not being automatically downloaded for journal articles. For correct metadata and PDFs, you should go directly to the source of the full text and add to Zotero from there—as described in the section on adding journal article citations to Zotero.
When viewing an individual book record in HOLLIS, Zotero displays a small blue book icon near the address bar.
Click on that icon to save the book to Zotero:
You can save an article when viewing its record or abstract page. When on a page for an individual article Zotero will display an icon of a piece of paper . Zotero will automatically download the full-text PDF if it is available.
Just as with HOLLIS, when viewing a search results screen in a database Zotero will display this folder icon to the right of the address bar.
Click the icon, and a small window will open.
Select which items you'd like to save, and click OK.
Zotero can recognize descriptive information or metadata from many websites.
To save a website to Zotero just click on the website icon to the right of the address bar.
The metadata and a snapshot of the page will be saved to Zotero.
Automatically Retrieve Metadata
Saving PDFs that you already on have on your computer to Zotero is easy: by dragging and dropping them into a collection. Zotero will automatically attempt to retrieve metadata for the item and add it for you.
- Drag-and-drop a PDF into a collection:
- Zotero will automatically attempt to retrieve metadata for the item and add it for you:
This metadata retrieval usually works really well when the PDF contains a unique identifier, e.g., a DOI. However, it may only work partially for items such as working papers, preprints, and manuscripts; in that case, you will need to add missing metadata manually.
You can also add PDFs by clicking on the Adobe icon when viewing PDFs in your browser.
Manually Add Metadata
If retrieving metadata does not work, you will only have the PDF itself in your library, without the necessary metadata to generate a proper citation. You will therefore need to manually add this information to the item:
- Right click and choose Create Parent Item.
- Now, manually fill in the metadata for the item.
First, change the item type to the appropriate type:
Then add the remaining citation information:
Check Citations for Accuracy
Although most of the citation information that Zotero captures will be correct, it is always a good idea to check every item's author, title, date, etc., and then to correct and/or add data.
All fields can be edited by clicking in the field.
- For example, if you need to fix a typo in a record imported from HOLLIS, click in the field and edit as needed:
- If you need to add or remove authors, editors, translators, etc., click on the plus or minus button and (when adding) select the appropriate role of the person from the drop-down menu, then enter their name:
- You can also change the item type (for example, change a record imported as a web page to a magazine article) by selecting the new item type from the drop-down menu:
Note that in some cases, the fields available in the record—which are determined by item type—may also change, and you may lose data.
APA Style Title Case
Note that Zotero's output for APA style does not change title casing to sentence style. To change titles that are not in sentence case for APA or other styles with that requirement, right-click on the title > Transform text > Sentence case.
Insert a Citation
Zotero works with both Microsoft Word and Google Docs. The functionality in Google Docs is the same as for Word below with the exception of a simpler menu.
Open Word and place your cursor where you'd like to add a citation, select the Zotero tab. If you are on an older Mac, Zotero can appear in multiple places; in a Zotero tab, as a hovering toolbar in the top left corner, or, in older Macs, as a drop-down menu item from the scroll icon at the top of the screen.
Add Page Numbers & More
Use the page drop-down menu to add page, figure, paragraph numbers and more.
To add text to the beginning or end of your citation use the Prefix and Suffix boxes.
If you want to cite multiple sources together click on the Multiple Sources button to select multiple items together.
Select a Citation Style
The first time you insert a citation in a document you will be required to choose a citation style.
You can change the citation style at anytime.
If you do not see the style you want listed, you will need to click on Cancel and go into Zotero's Preferences.
Under Cite select Styles. Click on Get Additional Styles
Find the style you want and click on the title. Click on Install.
To add page numbers or other information to your citation, place your cursor within the citation (1) and then click the Zotero Edit Citation button (2).
In the pop-up window, make the desired changes (e.g., adding page numbers) and click OK.
Your citation will automatically refresh and display the edits you made.
All metadata errors in a citation should be corrected in Zotero, not in Word.
Only use the Zotero Edit Citation function in the Zotero toolbar if you are making changes like those depicted above.
After you have gone into Zotero and updated the citation, use the Zotero Refesh button in Word to update your document.
Create Bibliography from Citations
After adding citations to your document, click Add/Edit Bibliography.
Zotero will insert a fully-formatted and alphabetized bibliography of all references cited in your document, using the citation style you had previously chosen:
Note that this bibliography will only contain articles, books, etc. that you have cited in your document. If you would like to add items to your bibliography that you have not cited in the document, place the cursor into the bibliography and click Add/Edit Bibliography again.
You will now see a pop-up window similar to the one you see when adding citations. The area on the right (1) contains all items already included in your bibliography; the area in the middle (2) shows all items in the Zotero collection selected in the area on the left (3). From the middle area, select the item(s) you would like to add to your bibliography, then click on the green right arrow between the middle and right areas.
Click OK. The additional item(s) should now show in your bibliography:
You can use Zotero to create an Annotated APA or Chicago Bibliography.
Download a new style from the Zotero Style Repository.
APA: Download the style "American Psychological Association 6th edition (annotated bibliography with abstract)."
Chicago: Download the style "Chicago Manual of Style 17th edition (note, annotated bibliography)."
Open your Zotero Library and select the item that you want to annotate.
In the "Info" tab on the right-hand pane, write the annotation in the "Extra" field.
Repeat this step for each item that you want to include in the annotated bibliography.
Open your word processing document and follow the standard process for inserting a citation into your document.
When prompted to choose your citation style, select the Annotated Chicago or APA style that you just downloaded.
You can quickly create standalone bibliographies with Zotero in three different ways.
- Creating a bibliography from a Zotero Collection.
- Creating a bibliography from select items in your Zotero library.
- Creating a bibliography of select items with drag-and-drop (known as Quick Copy in Zotero parlance).
Note that bibliographies created with any of these three methods are static. In other words, changes you make to a citation in Zotero will not be reflected in these bibliographies; they will be simple Word documents.
Creating a bibliography from a Zotero Collection
In Zotero, select the collection from which you would like to create a bibliography. Right-click on it and select Create Bibliography from Collection...
In the pop-up window that opens, select the Citation Style you would like to use (1), set the Output Mode to Bibliography (2), and select your preferred Output Method (3).
If saving as HTML or RTF, you can open this file in your chosen HTML editor or word processor to edit it further; if copying to the clipboard, you can simply paste the bibliography into a Word (or similar) document.
Creating a bibliography from select items in your Zotero library
In Zotero, select the items you would like to include in your bibliography (holding down the CTRL [Windows] or CMD [Mac] keys while clicking on items with your mouse). (If you would like to select items from different collections, select them from the My Library view.)
Right-click on any of the selected items; then select Create Bibliography from Items.
Proceed as described under Creating a Bibliography from a Zotero Collection.
Create a Group Library
There are two ways to create a group library:
Option 1: In Zotero, click the New Library icon. Select New Group. You will then be taken to the Zotero website to log into your account.
Option 2: Go directly to the Zotero website and login to your account. Click on Create a New Group.
Choose a unique name for your group and make sure to choose the appropriate level of privacy:
Private Membership: Only you and those you choose to invite to your group to be able to view the group's research.
Public, Closed Membership or Public, Open Membership: These options allow you to share your research with everyone, but control who can add to your research. (Note that shared file storage is not available to public, open groups.)
Zotero will also ask you define the reading and editing privileges group members should have regarding your Group Library.
View Group Libraries
Your group libraries should automatically sync to your Zotero account and appear below your Zotero Library:
If you do not see the group library you just created, try manually syncing your Zotero application and your online Zotero account by clicking on the green curving sync arrow in the top right corner.
Items can be copied and moved between private and group libraries.
Anything added by any members of the Group Library, including tags and notes, will appear for all members.
Click Members Settings and then Send More Invitations. You can invite collaborators to your group either by their Zotero user name or by the e-mail address associated with their account.
Help those who don't already use Zotero by including a link to this guide (http://guides.library.harvard.edu/zotero) in the optional personal message.
Your collaborators will receive an e-mail inviting them to your group.
An important consideration: Any PDFs stored within a Group Library will count against the storage limit of the owner of that Group Library. While you have unlimited storage if your Zotero account is linked to your Harvard e-mail, you should bear in mind that this unlimited storage will default to Zotero's free 300MB storage plan once you leave Harvard.