General Operating Instructions
Databases can have radically different interfaces or radical differences in what they cover. However, research databases, more and more, follow certain design conventions. A lot of searching is about pattern recognition.
Expect to see features like these:
TWO TYPES OF SEARCH SCREENS: BASIC AND ADVANCED
- While basic screens are straightforward invitations to string words together (with AND, OR, NOT) and see where a search goes, the advanced search screens of databases are typically more powerful.
- Advanced search screens offer a host of other ways to manipulate language and more precisely and deliberately control and shape a search before you run it.
- And incidentally, advanced search screens exist for familiar tools like Google, Google Scholar (just click on the ) , HOLLIS, and JSTOR.
TWO TYPES OF SEARCH LANGUAGE: KEYWORDS AND SUBJECTS
- Keywords are the concepts you think up to describe your topic or information need.
- Subject terms, by contrast, come from a standardized vocabulary list and are chosen by catalogers or database creators to describe the intellectual content or emphasis of an item in precise and commonly understood ways.
Subject terms add value to a search by helping you find additional items that are related in emphasis, that cover similar content, or that have the same purpose.
Subject terms are what ensure that you get to all the relevant information on a given topic, regardless of the keywords with which you start. You might see them called descriptors in certain databases. Whatever the nomenclature, their usefulness is in helping you get around the slippery nature of language.
SPECIAL SEARCH CONVENTIONS
OPTIONS TO FILTER, MODIFY, AND RE-SORT RESULTS
Most databases will present you with ways you can drill down into your initial search results to get better or just more targeted information to surface closer to the top.
Limiting to English (or another language), by resource type, to peer reviewed/academic journals, or to a range of dates are pretty standard ways of customizing a keyword search.
Most databases will rank results algorithmically by relevance, as Google does. If you prefer to see the results in chronological order, you should be able to resort your results by earliest date or have them display in reverse chronological order. You can also choose to rank by relevance if that's not the default.
In HOLLIS, these filters appear on the right side of the screen when your search results display. In most other library databases you use, you'll find them on the left side of the screen.
LINKS TO INFORMATION ABOUT ONLINE (OR PRINT) AVAILABILITY
Many journal databases now provide complete full-text of the materials they contain. But just as many offer full-text more selectively.
When full-text links don't appear, however, you’ll almost always see a button that looks like this:
Clicking on it will initiate a search through Harvard's other library databases in search of full-text.
If full-text isn't available, the software will prompt you to put in a Scan and Deliver request. We'll get you a PDF of the article, quickly, another way.
To use with Google Scholar, follow the directions we give here.
Recommendations and Related Research
Screen real estate is super important: so focus not just on what's directly in front of you, but also on what's off to the side. There are always embedded clues that might push your searching forward.
In HOLLIS, for example, opening up an article record often presents you with an algorithmically-generated short list of recommended reading. For books, HOLLIS offers a shelf view option (at the bottom of the item record, not the side).
Subject databases often do the same thing: a few even go so far as to tell you what users also read -- not just what's algorithmically appropriate. Some (like ProQuest) offer foundational research related to a topic, when available, or primary sources (e.g., newspaper articles) that might complete your picture of an event.
And Google Scholar works this way, as well: under a citation, you'll see links for related and cited by (i.e., who used the research after publication).