Research Management Tools

Save yourself time: format notes and bibliographies in minutes; automatically insert citations into your papers; collect and organize your sources.

Harvard librarians teach classes in the basics of Zotero and Endnote. Learn more about citation management software, check the class schedules, and register on the library guide: Research Management and Citation Tools.

Style Guides

Citing music, recordings, and liner notes can be tricky; these websites offer general guides for citing your sources, plus tips for music materials.

Music Citation Examples

Examples only -- please consult your professor, particularly about sound recordings, as varying citation formats exist.

(sheet music):
Brown, James. 20 All Time Greatest Hits! (voice and piano, with chord symbols and guitar chord diagrams). Milwaukee, WI: Hal Leonard, 1995.

Sound recording (CD or LP, see Chicago Manual of Style, 14.276 for more examples):
Brown, James. New Millenium Funk Party. Rhino, R2 76788. 2001.

Discography: Those in monograph form may be cited as books; sound recordings have their own citation format and can be grouped in a discography section of your bibliography.

Parliament Funkadelic. The Mothership Connection. DVD. Gravity Ltd.: Pioneer Artists, 2001. 

Electronic resources (See the Chicago-Style Citation Quick Guide for citing e-books, email messages, blog entries, and more):

Web Site:
Sun Ra Arkestra. "Official Website of the Sun Ra Arkestra”. (accessed March 9, 2009).

Article in an Online Journal:
Cooper, B. Lee. "It's still rock and roll to me: Reflections on the evolution of popular music and rock scholarship." Popular Music & Society 21, no. 1 (Spring97 1997): 101. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed July 19, 2012).