Selected Organizations and Resources in Education Policy and Management

The websites of associations or research centers working in your area can be useful sources of "gray literature." Usually some content is freely available, while other content may be limited to members with logins.

Finding and Evaluating Gray Literature

What is Gray Literature?

Generally gray literature is a work that is either informally published, or published by a non-commercial enterprise, such as an association, academic institution, or government agency. Gray literature includes reports, conference proceedings, research papers, dissertations and more.

Where to find Gray Literature?

• Organization websites – Look for tabs or links to Reports, Research, Publications or Resources.

• Use Google (not Google Scholar) -- Advanced Google Search allows you to get more focused results. Use exact phrase searching, limits to geographic regions or website domain ("org" or "gov"), and more.

How to Evaluate Gray Literature?

• Is the information from a reputable source? If it is unfamiliar, read the “About Us” section, and review the institutional affiliation of any members.

• What is the purpose of the organization or agency? Do they have an agenda, bias or commercial interest? Look for a mission statement.

• Is the information or research accurate and valid? Does information from other sources that you have read support or confirm the research?

• Is the information current or out-of-date?

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