Manuals of Style

Manuals of style, commonly referred to as citation manuals or style manuals, are invaluable not only because they prescribe the proper format for source documentation and citation, but because they recommend the latest best practices for writing in your field of study, from proper punctuation to preferred terminology to accepted discourse conventions; ignore their advice at your peril. Following are the styles used most commonly at Harvard.

APA Style

Chicago Style

MLA Style

Legal Citations

Common citation styles used in STEM fields:

Guidelines Published by Selected Societies

Selected Journal Formats

Citation Tools

Harvard Library supports a selection of citation tools that allow you to:

  • create a searchable database of the books, articles, book chapters, and more that you're using in your research
  • import citations, abstracts, and more from online sources
  • organize notes and full text documents, such as PDFs, images, spreadsheets
  • share references when you're working on collaborative projects
  • create reference lists in Chicago, MLA, APA and hundreds of other formats

Citations Tools we support include Zotero, EndNote, Overleaf Pro+, and Sciwheel.

To learn more about each tool, how they compare to one another, and for a list of upcoming classes, visit: