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The Cambridge Companions. Cambridge University Press.  

Cambridge University Press puts out a series called The Cambridge Companions. Online list available. There are a number of these devoted to specific philosophers across the span of the tradition, from the ancients, such as Plato and Aristotle, to medieval philosophers, like Aquinas and Augustine, to modern thinkers, such as Kant and Kierkegaard, to contemporary figures, such as Foucault and Rawls. Experts and scholars who study each figure generally contribute an essay discussing some aspect of that particular philosopher's work. The Cambridge Companions are good places for introductory essays and bibliographies about a philosopher's work.

A Guide to Philosophy in the Library of Congress Classification: How to find Philosophical Works in the Library (Archived version). See also Wiki: Library of Congress Classification:Class B -- Philosophy, Psychology, Religion.

This is a guide for navigating the Library of Congress (LC) classification system for philosophy print resources.

A History of Philosophy. F.C. Copleston, SJ. Nine volumes. Search Press, 1946-present.

Copleston's History of Philosophy is a well-regarded older introduction to philosophers and philosophical topics, especially its section on Kant. Copleston's articles provide introductions, commentaries, and bibliographies.
Widener: B72.C67 1946x
Robbins: B72.C62 1946x.

A History of Western Philosophy . W.T. Jones. Five volumes. Harcourt Brace Jovanovitch, 1969-1975.

Jones' five-volume survey of Western philosophy from the Pre-Socratics to the mid-twentieth century is a good overview to the subject.
Widener: B72.J652x 1969b

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy. Ted Honderich, editor. Oxford University Press, 1995.

This book is a single-volume dictionary of philosophy. There are roughly 2,000 entries, with maps, a chronology, an index, and short bibliographies.
Widener: RR 4903.35

Philosophy: a guide to the reference literature. Hans E. Bynagle. Libraries Unlimited, 2006.

Bynagle provides a one-volume guide to major print, Internet, and electronic resources in philosophy.  The work is aimed at a broad audience, from generalists with little to no background in the discipline to specialists.  Bynagle gives a general overview of the available secondary and reference sources.  Entries are listed by subject, which are then further broken down into region, school, language, topic, philosopher, and time period; cross-references are provided.
Robbins Philos. Library B72.299 B96 2006x
Widener RR 4901.38

Jim Pryor's Guide to Reading Philosophy

For novice students of philosophy, Jim Pryor provides useful tips on how to read a philosophical text.  Pryor offers a
three-part outline to guide the reader through the process of reading and evaluating philosophical works.

Jim Pryor's Guide to Writing a Philosophy Paper
Carla Bagnoli's How to Write a Philosophy Paper

For those who are new to philosophy, and are unsure about how to approach writing a philosophy paper, Jim Pryor and Carla
Bagnoli offer guides on how this is done.  Each guide outlines what is expected in a philosophy paper, how to structure
the paper, the need for revisions and drafts, and how to avoid some of the most common grading issues.