Research Management Tools

Save yourself time: format notes and bibliographies in minutes; automatically insert citations into your papers; collect and organize your sources.

Harvard librarians teach classes in the basics of Zotero and Endnote. Learn more about citation management software, check the class schedules, and register on the library guide: Research Management and Citation Tools.

Style Guides

Citing music, recordings, and liner notes can be tricky; these websites offer general guides for citing your sources, plus tips for music materials.

Special Cases


Cite print discographies like books.

Sound Recordings

Sound recordings are usually grouped in a separate discography section of your bibliography, and rules for how to cite them are slightly less fixed, especially as you may choose to highlight the work of the person most important to your argument (composer, performer, producer, notes author, etc.). 

For more guidelines, see the Chicago Manual of Style Online, Section 14.263.

Citing the Recording

Footnote: Cecil Taylor, Chinampas, recorded November 16, 1987, Leo CDLR 153, 1987, reissued 2000, compact disc.

Bibliography: Taylor, Cecil. Chinampas. Recorded November 16, 1987. Leo CDLR 153, 2000, Compact disc. Originally released in 1987.

Citing the Liner Notes 

Footnote: Spencer Richards, “Cecil Taylor Unit,” in accompanying booklet, Cecil Taylor, Live in Vienna, recorded November 7, 1987, Leo LR 174, 1988, compact disc. 

Bibliography: Richards, Spencer. “Cecil Taylor Unit.” Essay in accompanying booklet, Cecil Taylor, Live in Vienna. Recorded November 7, 1987. Leo LR 174, 1988. Compact disc.