APA Style

Identifying and creating an APA style citation for your bibliography: 

  • Author's surname, initial(s). (Date Published). Title of source. Location of publisher: publisher. Retrieved from URL
    • Author initials are separated by a period
    • Multiple authors are separated by commas and an ampersand (&)  
    • Title format rules change depending on what is referenced
  • Please note, PubMed has citation generators
    • Double check them for accuracy 

Identifying and creating an APA style in-text citation: 

  • These citations include the author(s) surname and year of publication 
    • eg. (Smith, 2022) or (Smith & Stevens, 2022) 
  • The structure of this changes depending on whether a direct quote or parenthetical used:

    • Direct Quote: the citation must follow the quote directly and contain a page number after the date

      • eg. (Smith, 2022, p.21)

    • Parenthetical: the page number is not needed

For more information, take a look at Harvard Library's APA Style guide!

Primary Research Article

A primary research article typically contains the following section headings:

  • "Methods"/"Materials and Methods"/"Experimental Methods"(different journals title this section in different ways)

  • "Results"

  • "Discussion"

If you skim the article, you should find additional evidence that an experiment was conducted by the authors themselves.

Primary research articles provide a background on their subject by summarizing previously conducted research, this typically occurs only in the Introduction section of the article.

Review Article

Review articles do not report new experiments. Rather, they attempt to provide a thorough review of a specific subject by assessing either all or the best available scholarly literature on that topic.

Ways to identify a review article: 

  • Author(s) summarize and analyze previously published research 
  • May focus on a specific research question, comparing and contrasting previously published research 
  • Overview all of the research on a particular topic 
  • Does not contain "methods" or "results" type sections