Ask me: Liza Vick

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Kerry Masteller
Loeb Music Library, Music Building
Harvard University

Cite Your Sources

Save yourself time and keep your research organized with a citation management program like Zotero:

  • Collect the information you'll need to cite your sources (author, title, publication year, etc.) with one click
  • Quickly create citations and bibliographies in almost any citation style
  • Organize, tag, and annotate your sources

Harvard librarians teach classes in the basics of Zotero and Endnote. Learn more and check the class schedules: Citation and Research Management Tools.

Special Cases

Scores/Sheet Music

Cite printed music like books.


Cite print discographies like books.

Sound Recordings

Sound recordings are usually grouped in a separate discography section of your bibliography, and rules for how to cite them are slightly less fixed, especially as you may choose to highlight the work of the person most important to your argument (composer, performer, producer, notes author, etc.). 

For more guidelines, see the Chicago Manual of Style Online, Section 14.274.

Citing the Recording

Footnote: James Brown, Say It Loud: I'm Black and I'm Proud,  recorded August 17, 1967-October 18, 1968, PolyGram 42284 1992-2, 1996, compact disc.

Bibliography: Brown, James. Say It Loud: I'm Black and I'm Proud. PolyGram 42284 1992-2, 1996, compact disc. Recorded August 17, 1969-October 18, 1968.

Citing the Liner Notes 

Footnote: Spencer Richards, “Cecil Taylor Unit,” in accompanying booklet, Cecil Taylor, Live in Vienna, recorded November 7, 1987, Leo LR 174, 1988, compact disc. 

Bibliography: Richards, Spencer. “Cecil Taylor Unit.” Essay in accompanying booklet, Cecil Taylor, Live in Vienna. Recorded November 7, 1987. Leo LR 174, 1988, compact disc.