Background sources

Oxford African American studies center: the online authority on the African American experience contains reference articles and primary sources, including images and maps. (Harvard login)

The Harvard Guide to African-American History, ed. by Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham et al., Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2001 (Print only)

Encyclopedia of African American History, ed. by Leslie M. Alexander and Walter C. Rucker, Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2010 (Print only)

The Greenwood encyclopedia of African American civil rights: from emancipation to the twenty-first century, ed. by Charles D. Lowery and John F. Marszalek. 2nd ed. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2003. (Print only)

African American Almanac: Day-by-day Black History, ed. by Leon T. Ross and Kenneth A. Mimms, Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1997. (Print only)