Statistical sources

Black demographic data, 1790-1860: a sourcebook, by Clayton E. Cramer. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1997. (Print only)

Historical statistics of Black America, by Jessie Carney Smith and Carrell Peterson Horton. New York: Gale Research, 1995. (Print only)

Statistical record of Black America.1st ed.-4th ed. Detroit: Gale Research, 1990-1997. (Print only)

The African American electorate: a statistical history, by Hanes Walton, Sherman C. Puckett, Donald R. Deskins. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: CQ Press, 2012. (Print only)