"The Divinity School Did Not Grow"

"Between 1840 and 1880 the Divinity School did not grow. After the resignation of Palfrey and the deaths of the two Wares, the Parkman and Hancock professorships were until 1857 the only ones occupied. ... The student body, as well, remained small, averaging 22.7 for the period and tending to decline with the passing years. ...As for the academic competence of students, the trend until 1870 was perceptibly downward. At that date, reformatory measures were begun, but improvement was slow. ... Only the library grew consistently.

" ... Student life went on much the same as before. ... From many testimonies, one gathers that morale, both spiritual and academic, declined continually from the School's high under Dean Palfrey down through the term of Dean Oliver Stearns. ... It is difficult to say just when the School was at its nadir, for at no time since the early 1840s had it been in a healthy state; but the year 1868-69, when Dr. Stearns was the only able-bodied professor in full-time residence, would probably qualify. ... It should remembered, also, that during this period the Medical School and the Law School were likewise in a state of neglect and desuetude."

From: Ahlstrom., Sydney E. "The Middle Period," in The Harvard Divinity School: Its Place in Harvard University and in American Culture. Boston: Beacon Press, 1954. P. 88-92.

See also the description of the School by Francis Greenwood Peabody quoted in the online exhibit Harvard Diviity School at the Turn of 20th Century.

Primary Sources

1844: Harvard Divinity School. Catalogue of the Alumni of the Divinity School of the University in Cambridge. Cambridge: Metcalf and Company, 1844. [Bayerischen Staatsbibliothek digitized copy] (Find It @ Harvard)

1845: Peabody, Andrew Preston. Anti-Supernaturalism: A Sermon Preached before the Senior Class of the Divinity School in Harvard University, July 13, 1845. Cambridge, Mass.: J. Owen 1845. (Find It @ Harvard)

1849: Hedge, Frederic Henry. An Address Delivered before the Graduating Class of the Divinity School in Cambridge, July 15, 1849. Cambridge: J. Bartlett, 1849. (Find It @ Harvard)

1850: Harvard University. Board of Overseers. Report of the Committee of the Overseers of Harvard College Appointed to Visit the Divinity School in 1849. Cambridge, Mass.: Metcalf and Co., 1850. (Find It @ Harvard)

1852: Harvard University. Board of Overseers. Report of a Committee of the Overseers and Memorial of the Corporation of Harvard College on the Relations between the Theological School and the College. Boston: Printed by J. Wilson & Son, 1852. [Bayerischen Staatsbibliothek digitized copy] (Find It @ Harvard)

1854: Fowler, James Hackett. New Testament "Miracles," and Modern "Miracles": The Comparative Amount of Evidence for Each; The Nature of Both; Testimony of a Hundred Witnesses: An Essay Read before the Middle and Senior Classes in Cambridge Divinity School. Boston: B. Marsh, 1854. [Andover-Harvard digitized copy] (Find It @ Harvard)

1854: Harvard Divinity School. Hymn for the Celebration of Christmas Eve at the Chapel of the Divinity School, Sunday, December 24, 1854. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Divinity School, 1854. Initials (S.B.D.) at end of hymn are most likely that of Simeon Borden Dufree, who graduated from Harvard Divinity School in 1855. "Dufree" is also spelled out in pencil after the initials. [Andover-Harvard digitized copy] (Find It @ Harvard)

1855: Briggs, George Ware. The Living Ministry, Its Preparation and Its Work: An Address Delivered before the Graduating Class in the Theological School at Cambridge, Sunday evening, July 15, 1855. Cambridge: John Bartlett, Allen and Farnham, printers, 1855. (Find It @ Harvard)

1855: Eliot, William Greenleaf. A Discourse Delivered before the Alumni of the Divinity School of Harvard University, July 17, 1855. Boston: Crosby, Nichols & Co., 1855. (Find It @ Harvard)

1856: Massachusetts. Supreme Judicial Court. Opinion of the Supreme Judicial Court on the Question of Separating the Divinity School from Harvard College. Cambridge: Metcalf and Co., 1856.   [Bayerischen Staatsbibliothek digitzied copy]. (Find It @ Harvard)

1857: Ellis, George Edward. Inaugural Address Delivered in the Chapel of Harvard College: Tuesday, July 14, 1857, on His Induction to the Professorship of Systematic Theology in the Divinity School of the University. Boston: Crosby, Nichols, and Company, 1857. (Find It @ Harvard)

1859: Bellows, Henry Whitney. The Suspense of Faith: An Address to the Alumni of the Divinity School of Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass., Given July 19, 1859. New York: C.S. Francis, 1859. (Find It @ Harvard] Bellow's address led to some controversy and his own response (see below)

  • The Broad Church: Some Considerations upon "The Suspense of Faith," an Address Delivered before the Divinity School of Harvard College, July 19, by Rev. Dr. Bellows. Boston: J.E. Tilton, 1859. (Find It @ Harvard)
  • Christian Unity, Addressed to "All who Love Our Lord Jesus Christ in Sincerity," with Special Reference to the Sermon of Dr. Van Renselaer on the Death of Bishop Doane, and Dr. Smith on the Death of Dr. Johns, and the the Address of Rev. Henry Bellows, Styled "The Suspense of Faith" Delivered to the Alumni of the Divinity School of Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass., July 19, 1859 by "A Member of Christ." Cambridge?, 1859. (Find It @ Harvard)
  • Smith, John Cotton. The Suspense and Restoration of Faith: Republished from the Episcopal Quarterly. Boston: Dutton, 1859. (Find It @ Harvard)
  • Bellows, Henry Whitney. A Sequel to "The Suspense of Faith" Addressed to his Own Congregation, Sunday, Sept. 25th, 1859, on the Reopening of All Souls' Church, after the Summer Vacation. New York : D. Appleton and Company, 1859.(Find It @ Harvard)

1860: Brooks, Charles Timothy. The Christian Minister, the Man of God: A Discourse Delivered before the Graduating Class of the Divinity School in Harvard University, July 15, 1860. Boston: Walker, Wise, and Company, 1860. (Find It @ Harvard)

1864: Hedge, Frederic Henry. "Anti-Supernaturalism in the Pulpit: An Address Delivered to the Graduating Class of the Divinity School, Cambrdige, July 17, 1864." Christian Examiner, v. 77 (5th series, v. 15), no 245 (Sept. 1864), p. 145-159. [Andover-Harvard digitized copy]

  • Bowen, Daniel. Assumed Authority: A Review of Rev. Dr. Hedge's Address, Entitled "Anti-Supernaturalism in the Pulpit" Boston: Walker, Wise, and Company, 1864. (Find It @ Harvard)

1863: Osgood, Samuel. Our Life-School as Theologians: A Discourse before the Alumni of the Theological School, Harvard University, July 14, 1863. Boston: Walker, Wise, and Company, 1863. (Find It @ Harvard)

1867: Bartol, Cyrus Augustus. The Clerical Business: An Address before the Senior Class in the Divinity School, at Cambridge, July 14, 1867. Boston: Adams, 1867. (Find It @ Harvard)

Which Harvard Divinty School students served in the Civil War?

Arthur Buckminster Fuller Thomas Wentworth Higginson John C. Kimball Augustus Woodbury

Most of this information comes from the General Catalogue of the Divinity School of Harvard University (1920). We have attempted to verify, when possible, information in this list, but it is certainly open to corrections. Links are to The Civil War, a site maintained by the National Park Service.

There are two lists. The first are those who were commissioned as soldiers. Below that is a list of students who officially served but not as commissioned soldiers.

Charles Babbidge (Oct. 27, 1806-May 5, 1798) was a Chaplain in the 6th Regiment, Massachusetts Infantry (Apr. 15, 1861-Aug. 2, 1861) and of the 26th Regiment, Massachusetts Infantry, Nov.  17, 1861-Nov. 7, 1864. He was a Harvard Divinity School graduate in the class of 1832.

Stephen Barker (Jan. 14, 1829-Oct. 19, 1893) was a Chaplain in the 1st Regiment, Massachusetts Heavy Artillery, July 5, 1861-July 8, 1864. He was a Harvard Divinity School graduate in the class of 1856.

George Washington Bartlett (Feb. 19, 1827-June 2, 1864) was a Chaplain in the 14th Regiment, Maine Infantry, Dec. 28, 1861-Feb. 1, 1863, and in the 1st Regiment, Maine Cavalry, Feb. 13, 1864-June 2, 1864. He was killed in the Battle of Cold Harbor, Va. He was a Harvard Divinity School graduate in the class of 1857.

Nicholas Emery Boyd (Aug. 13, 1837-Sept. 19, 1928) was a Private, Sept. 29, 1862-Feb. 10, 1863, and a Corporal, Feb. 10, 1863-July 10, 1863, in the 25th Regiment, Maine Infantry. He attended Harvard Divinity School for one year ending in 1872.

Charles Taylor Canfield (Apr. 13, 1823-Feb. 8, 1913) was a Chaplain in the 36th Regiment, Massachusetts Infantry, Sept. 2, 1862-Oct. 20, 1863. He was a Harvard Divinity School graduate in the class of 1855.

Augustus Hammond Conant (Oct. 16, 1811-Feb. 8, 1863) was a Chaplain in the 19th Regiment, Illinois Infantry (July 31, 1861-Feb. 8, 1863). He died in Mufreesborough, Tenn. He attended Harvard Divinity School briefly around 1841.

Warren Handel Cudworth (May 23, 1825-Nov. 29, 1883) was a Chaplain in the 1st Regiment, Massachusetts Infantry, May 22, 1861-May 28, 1864. He was a Harvard Divinity School graduate in the class of 1851.

Hasbrouck Davis (Apr. 23, 1827-Oct. 19, 1870), He was a Lieutenant Colonel, Feb. 1, 1862-Jan. 5, 1864, and Colonel, Jan. 1, 1864-Aug. 1, 1865, of the 12th Regiment, Illinois Cavalry, He attended Harvard Divinity School for less than a year ending around 1847.

George Bourne Farnsworth (Feb. 29, 1828-Apr. 11, 1887) was a Second Lieutenant in the 5th Regiment, Massachusetts Cavalry (Colored), Dec. 17, 1863-May 3, 1865. He was a Harvard Divinity School graduate in the class of 1861.

Gerald Fitzgerald (Sept. 6, 1835-May 3, 1863) was a Private, June 26-Sept. 7, 1861, and Sergeant Major [not verified], Sept. 7, 1861-Aug. 15, 1862, in the 12th Regiment, Massachusetts Infantry;  and a Second Lieutenant, Sept. 2, 1862-Mar. 20, 1863, and First Lieutenant, Mar. 20, 1863-May 3, 1863, in the 2nd Regiment, Massachusetts Infantry. He died in the Battle of Chancellorsville, and his body was never recovered. He was a Harvard Divinity School graduate in the class of 1859.

James Hackett Fowler (June 4, 1824-June 10, 1889) was a Chaplain in the 33rd Regiment, United States Colored Infantry (Jan. 31, 1863-Nov. 1, 1865). He was a Harvard Divinity School graduate in the class of 1854.

Edward Beecher French (Nov. 20, 1832-July 14, 1907) was a Private, July 26-Sept. 6, 1862, and a Chaplain, Sept. 6, 1862-June 2, 1865, in the 39th Regiment, Massachusetts Infantry. He was a Harvard Divinity School graduate in the class of 1859.

Arthur Buckminster Fuller (Aug. 10, 1822-Dec. 11, 1862) was a Chaplain in the 16th Regiment, Massachusetts Infantry. He died in the Battle of Fredericksburg, Va. He was a Harvard Divinity School graduate in the class of 1847.

Edward Istley Galvin (Apr. 3, 1838-Aug. 21, 1908) was a Second Lieutenant in the 42nd Regiment, Massachusetts Infantry (100 days, 1864) (Militia), July 15, 1864-Nov. 11, 1864 (also Chaplain elect after Aug. 23, 1864). He was a Harvard Divinity School graduate in the class of 1862.

William Batchelder Greene (Apr. 4, 1819-May 30, 1878) was a Colonel in the 1st Regiment, Massachusetts Heavy Artillery (a reorganization of the 14th Regiment Infantry). He was a Harvard Divinity School graduate in the class of 1845.

Edward Henry Hall (Apr. 16, 1831-Feb. 22, 1912) was a Chaplain in the 44th Regiment, Massachusetts Infantry (Militia), Sept. 12, 1862-June 18, 1863. He was a Harvard Divinity School graduate in the class of 1855.

William Ware Hall (Oct. 27, 1834-Aug. 9, 1864) was a First Lieutenant in the 5th Regiment, Rhode Island Heavy Artillery, Dec. 16, 1861-Aug. 2, 1862. He resigned on account of disability and took charge of the instruction of the Freedmen on St. Helena Island, Port Royal, S.C., until July 1, 1864. He was a Harvard Divinity School graduate in the class of 1858.

Augustus Mellen Haskell (Jan. 24, 1832-Feb. 24, 1893) was a Chaplain in the 40th Regiment, Massachusetts Infantry, Sept. 11 (or Oct. 9), 1863-Mar. 6, 1864. He was a Harvard Divinity School graduate in the class of 1861.

Thomas Albert Henderson (Dec. 1, 1834-Aug. 16, 1864) was an Adjutant, Nov. 4, 1861-Aug. 26, 1862; Major, Aug. 26, 1862-July 22, 1863; and Lieutenant Colonel, July 22, 1863-Aug. 16, 1864. He died in the Battle of Deep Bottom, Va. He attended Harvard Divinity School briefly around 1857.

George Hughes Hepworth (Feb. 4, 1833-June 7, 1902) was a Chaplain in the 47th Regiment, Massachusetts Infantry (Militia), Nov. 6, 1862-Feb. 11, 1863. He was a Harvard Divinity School graduate in the class of 1855.

Thomas Wentworth Higginson (Dec. 22, 1832-May 9, 1911) was a Captain in the 51st Regiment, Massachusetts Infantry (Militia), Sept. 1862-Nov. 1862, and Colonel of the 33rd Regiment, United States Colored Infantry (formerly the 1st South Carolina Colored Infantry), Nov. 1862-Oct. 1864. He was a Harvard Divinity School graduate in the class of 1847.

Thomas  Dwight Howard (Dec. 25, 1826-Sept. 6, 1910) was a Chaplain in the 88th Regiment, United States Colored Infantry (Old Organization), Jan. 20, 1864-Aug. 11, 1864, and in the 78th Regiment, United States Colored Infantry, Aug. 24, 1864-Jan. 6, 1866. He was a Harvard Divinity School graduate in the class of 1851.

Charles Alfred Humphreys (Apr. 1, 1838-Nov. 22, 1921) was a Chaplain in the 2nd Regiment, Massachusetts Cavalry, July 14, 1863-Apr. 12, 1865. He was a Harvard Divinity School graduate in the class of 1863.

Sylvan Stanley Hunting (Mar. 22, 1826-June 2, 1894) was a Chaplain in the 27th Regiment, Michigan Infantry, Mar. 26, 1863-June 1, 1863, and Nov. 22, 1863-July 26, 1865. He was a Harvard Divinity School graduate in the class of 1852.

John C. Kimball (May 23, 1832-Feb. 16, 1910) was a Chaplain in the 8th Regiment, Massachusetts Infantry (9 months, 1862-63), Nov. 8, 1862-Aug. 7, 1863. He was a Harvard Divinity School graduate in the class of 1859.

Joseph Foster Lovering (Aug. 18, 1836-Mar. 4, 1915) was a Chaplain in the 17th Regiment, Maine Infantry, Nov. 10, 1863-June 5, 1865. He attended Harvard Divinity School for less than a year ending around 1855.

Henry Bartlett Maglathlin (May 16, 1819-Feb. 17, 1910) was a Captain in the 4th Regiment, Massachusetts Infantry. He was a Harvard Divinity School graduate in the class of 1846.

Milton Jennings Miller (Dec. 28, 1831-Sept. 10, 1919) was a Chaplain in the 110th Regiment, Ohio Infantry, Aug. 8, 1864-June 25, 1865. He was a Harvard Divinity School graduate in the class of 1863.

John Farwell Moors (Dec. 10, 1819-Jan. 27, 1895) was a Chaplain in the 52nd Regiment, Massachusetts Infantry (Militia), Nov. 19, 1862-Aug. 14, 1863. He was a Harvard Divinity School graduate in the class of 1845.

Ephraim Nute (Sept. 17, 1819-Jan. 21, 1897) was a Chaplain in the 1st Regiment, Kansas Infantry. He was a Harvard Divinity School graduate in the class of 1845.

John Pierpont (Apr. 6, 1785-Aug. 27, 1866) was a Chaplain in the 22nd Regiment, Massachusetts Infantry, Oct. 21-Nov. 5, 1861. was a Harvard Divinity School graduate in the class of 1818.

James Richardson (May 25, 1817-Nov. 10, 1863) was a Private in the 20th Regiment, Connecticut Infantry, August 1872-Nov. 10, 1863. He served as a clerk to his captain, superintendent of the cook-tent, and an acting chaplain. In August 1862, he was assigned to the Sanitary Commission in Washington, D.C.  He was a Harvard Divinity School graduate in the class of 1845.

Henry George Rollins (Aug. 12, 1838-Mar. 22, 1932) was a Lieutenant in the 48th Regiment, Massachusetts Infantry (Militia), Aug. 30, 1862-Sept. 3, 1863. He attended Harvard Divinity School for less than a year ending around 1860.

John Savary (Nov. 4, 1832-May 18, 1910) was a Private in the 47th Regiment, Massachusetts Infantry (Militia), Nov. 30, 1862-Sept. 23, 1863. He was a Harvard Divinity School graduate in the class of 1860.

Henry Stone (Aug. 17, 1830-Jan. 18, 1896) was a Lieutenant in the 1st Regiment, Wisconsin Infantry, Aug. 28, 1861-Jan. 19, 1865, and a Lieutenant-Colonel in the 100th Regiment, United States Colored Infantry, Jan. 19-Dec. 26, 1865. He was a Harvard Divinity School graduate in the class of 1860.

Joseph Henry Thayer (Nov. 7, 1828-Nov. 26, 1901) was a Chaplain in the 40th Regiment, Massachusetts Infantry, Sept. 17, 1862-May 16, 1863. He attended Harvard Divinity School for a year ending in 1857.

Edwin Miller Wheelock (Aug. 30-1839-Oct. 29, 1901) was a Chaplain in the  15th Regiment, New Hampshire Infantry , Oct. 10, 1862-July 18, 1863, and a First Lieutenant in the 76th Regiment, United States Colored Infantry, July 20, 1863-Dec. 31, 1865. He was a Harvard Divinity School graduate in the class of 1856.

Francis Charles Williams (Nov. 2, 1824-Nov. 27, 1910) was a Chaplain in the 8th Regiment, Vermont Infantry, Dec. 20, 1861-June 22, 1864. He attended Harvard Divinity School for two years ending in 1846.

Martin Wyman Willis (Dec. 1, 1821-Apr. 26, 1893) was a Chaplain in the 4th Regiment, New Hampshire Infantry (Aug. 20, 1861-June 20, 1862; he was furloughed due to sickness on Jan. 20, 1862). He was a Harvard Divinity School graduate in the class of 1843.

Edmund Burke Willson (Aug. 15, 1820-June 13, 1895) was a Chaplain in the 24th Regiment, Massachusetts Infantry, Oct. 21, 1863-July 6, 1864. He was a Harvard Divinity School graduate in the class of 1843.

Augustus Woodbury (Dec. 4, 1825-Nov. 19, 1895) was a Captain/Chaplain in the 1st Regiment, Rhode Island Infantry (3 months, 1861), Apr. 17, 1861-Aug. 2, 1861. He was a Harvard Divinity School graduate in the class of 1849.

George Wheelock Woodward (Feb. 10, 1810-June 29, 1887) was Chaplain of the 45th Regiment, Illinois Infantry, Jan. 1, 1862-Jan. 28, 1863. He was a Harvard Divinity School graduate in the class of 1834.

Non-Commisioned:

Charles James Bowen (May 20, 1827-Apr. 10, 1870) was a Hospital Chaplain at the Camden Street Hospital in Baltimore, Md., June 1 (or May 31), 1862-June 10, 1865. He was a Harvard Divinity School graduate in the class of 1850.

Benjamin Franklin Chandler (Sept. 19, 1816-Oct. 30, 1886) was a civil engineer in the Navy, mostly at the Portsmouth Navy Yard, July 7, 1852-Oct. 15, 1881. He attended Harvard Divinity School for a little more than a year ending in 1838.

William Henry Channing (May 25, 1810-Dec. 23, 1884) served in camps and hospitals, including Stanton Hospital, in Washington, D.C., under the U.S. Sanitary Commission (1861-65), and in 1863-64 was chaplain of the House of Representatives. He was a Harvard Divinity School graduate in the class of 1833.

Charles Noyes (Oct. 26, 1835-May 23, 1916) was a Chaplain in the Draft Rendevous on Galloup’s Island in Boston Harbor, May 21, 1864-Aug. 14, 1865. He was a Harvard Divinity School graduate in the class of 1859.

William James Potter (Feb. 1, 1830-Dec. 21, 1893) was drafted on July 23, 1863, and assigned to “visiting and inspecting all the United States hospitals in or near Washington and Alexandria.” He resigned in May 1864 but returned to Washington to work for the Sanitary Commission until August 1864. He attended Harvard Divinity School during the 1856/57 academic year.

Nathanael  Seaver (Apr. 21, 1936-Nov. 7, 1919) worked for the U.S. Sanitary Commission, Aug. 1864-Dec. 20, 1864. He was a Harvard Divinity School graduate in the class of 1864.