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9 to 5, National Association of Working Women (U.S.)

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9 to 5: Organization for Women Office Workers was founded in Boston in 1972 by Ellen Cassedy and Karen Nussbaum. In 1977 several affiliated groups, including Boston 9 to 5, sponsored the formation of a national group, Working Women, with headquarters in Cleveland. In 1983 the national organization changed its name to 9 to 5, National Association of Working Women. By means of publicity, conferences, affirmative action campaigns, and job and wage surveys, the organization has worked to improve conditions for women employed by banks, publishing houses, insurance companies, colleges and universities, and other major employers. Besides affirmative action and equal pay, important issues include the status of minority women, age discrimination, health and safety concerns relating to office automation, and "re-entry" for displaced homemakers.

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