Secondary Sources, Context, and Background

Geology: Chronologies, Dictionaries, Directories, Encyclopedias, Handbooks


Good, G. A., ed. 1998. Sciences of the Earth: An Encyclopedia of Events, People, and Phenomena. 2 v. NY: Garland Pub.

Articles on earth sciences history, each with a bibliography.

Luschen, H. 1979. Die Namen der Steine: das Mineralreich im Spiegel der Sprache: mit einem Worterbuch, enthaltend uber 1300 Namen von Mineralien, Gesteinen, Edelsteinen, Fabel- und Zaubersteinen. 2nd ed. Thun: Ott, 380 pp.

Contributions to a history of American state geological and natural history surveys, ed. and comp. by George P. Merrill. United States National Museum. Bulletin 109, 1920, 549 p. 
HathiTrust Version

Includes portraits of the state geologists.

Socolow, A. A., ed. 1988. The State Geological Surveys: A History. Assoc. of American State Geologists.

Includes portraits of the state geologists.

Thompson, S. J. 1988. A Chronology of Geological Thinking from Antiquity to 1899. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 320 pp.

Ward, D. C., M. W. Wheeler & R. A. Bier, Jr. 1981. Geologic Reference Sources: A Subject and Regional Bibliography of Publications and Maps in the Geological Sciences. 2nd ed. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 560 pp.

Geology: Collections

Cleevely, R. J. 1983. World Palaeontological Collections. London, NY: British Museum (Natural History)/ Mansell, 365 pp.

Wiktor, J. 1991. Bibliography of Catalogues of Type Specimens in World's Zoological and Palaeozoological Collections. (Prace zoologiczne, 22). Wroclaw: Wroclaw University Press, 308 pp.


Frey, D. G., ed. 1963. Limnology in North America. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 734 pp.

Chapter bibliographies for each state/region list primary literature.

Geography [Includes cartography, expeditions (non-oceanographic), and surveying]

Geography: Chronologies, Dictionaries, Directories, Encyclopedias, Handbooks

Calatayud Arinero, M. de los Angeles. 1984. Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (Spain). Archivo. Catalogo de las expediciones y viajes cientificos espanoles a America y Filipinas (siglos XVIII y XIX): fondos del Archivo del Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales. (Coleccion Tierra nueva e cielo nuevo; 12). Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Museo Nacional Ciencias Naturales, 433 pp.

Harley, J. B. and D. Woodward, eds. 1987- . The History of Cartography. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

  • v. 1. Cartography in prehistoric, ancient, and medieval Europe and the Mediterranean
  • v. 2. bk. 1. Cartography in the traditional Islamic and South Asian societies
  • v. 2. bk. 2. Cartography in the traditional east and southeast Asian societies
  • v. 2. bk. 3. Cartography in the traditional African, American, Arctic, Australian, and Pacific societies

Wallis, H. & A. Robinson. 1987. Cartographical Innovations: An International Handbook of Mapping Terms to 1900. Tring, Hertfordshire: Map Collector Publications, 353 pp.

Biographical Resources

Lambrecht, K. & W. Quenstedt. 1938. Palaeontologi: Catalogus bio-bibliographicus. (Fossilium catalogus. I. Animalia, pars 72). 's-Gravenhage: W. Junk, 495 pp.

Mineralogical Record Biographical Archive

Moliavko, G. I., V.P. Franchuk & V.G. Kulichenko. 1985. Geologi, geografy: biograficheskii spravochnik. Kiev: Nauk. dumka, 351 pp.

Sarjeant, W. A. S. 1980. Geologists and the History of Geology: An International Bibliography from the Origins to 1978. 5 v. London: Macmillan; NY: Arno Press. Supplement 1979-1984 and Additions. 2 v. 1987; Supplement 2 1985-1993 and Additions. 3 v. 1996. Malabar, FL: R. E. Krieger.

Wilson, W. E. 1994. Census of mineral collectors, 1530-1799. Pp. 157-199 in The History of Mineral Collecting, 1530-1799. The Mineralogical record, v. 25, no. 6.

Bibliography of works cited pp. 229-240.


Charton, B. 2003. A to Z of marine scientists. NY: Facts On File, 230 pp.

Day, D. 2001. Bibliography of Biographies of Ocean Scientists. Scripps Institution of Oceanography Technical Report 43, 211 pp.

Vetter, R. C. 1969. Directory of oceanographers in the United States, 1969. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences, 72 pp.


Dawson, L. S. 1969. Memoirs of Hydrography, including Brief Biographies of the Principal Officers who have Served in H.M. Naval Surveying Service between the Years 1750 and 1885. 2 v. in 1. London: Cornmarket. [Reprint of the 1883-1885 ed.]

Dunbar, G. S. 1996. A Biographical Dictionary of American Geography in the 20th Century. 2nd ed. Baton Rouge: Geoscience Publications, Dept. of Geography and Anthropology, Louisiana State University, 122 pp. Not at Harvard

Geographers: Biobibliographical Studies. Studies in the History of Geography. v. 1- 1977- . London: Mansell.

Deceased geographers. Includes primary, secondary, and manuscript sources.

Larkin, R. P. and G. L. Peters. 1993. Biographical Dictionary of Geography. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 361 pp.

Biographies of 77 geographers, ancient Greek to living, with selective bibliographies of their publications, chronologies of their careers, and references to to further information. Includes lists of biographees by date and country of birth.

Lownthal, M. A., ed. 1998. Who's Who in the History of Cartography. 9th ed. Tring, Herts: Map Collector Publications, 269 pp.

Directory of living historical cartographers.

Smart, C. E. 1962, 1967. The Makers of Surveying Instruments in America since 1700. 2 v. Troy, NY: Regal Art Press.

Steer, F. et al. 1975-76. Dictionary of Land Surveyors and Local Cartographers of Great Britain and Ireland, 1550-1850, ed. by P. Eden. 4 v. Folkestone: Dawson.

Tooley, R. V. 1979. Tooley's Dictionary of mapmakers. Tring: Map Collector Publications, 684 p.

Almost 21,500 mapmakers, Antiquity-1900. Supplement. NY: A.R. Liss; Amsterdam, Netherlands: Meridian, 1985, 116 p.

Waldman, C. and A. Wexler. 1992. Who was Who in World Exploration. NY: Facts on File, 712 pp. (Not at Harvard)

Primary Sources

Periodical Indexes


International Catalogue of Scientific Literature H. Geology (1901-14). 14 v.

International Catalogue of Scientific Literature G. Mineralogy (1901-14). 14 v.

International Catalogue of Scientific Literature K. Palaeontology (1901-14). 14 v.

List of Literature added to the Geological Society's Library (1895-1936). [Annual; Geological Society of London]

Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie, und Paläontologie (1827-)


International Catalogue of Scientific Literature F. Meteorology (1901-14). 14 v.

Meteorological and Geoastrophysical Abstracts (1974- ) offers worldwide coverage of meteorology, climatology, atmospheric chemistry and physics, physical oceanography, hydrology, glaciology, etc. Includes journal articles, conference papers, books, reports.


Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts (1978- ) which is composed of:

  • ASFA 1: Biological Sciences and Living Resources, 1978- .
  • ASFA 2: Ocean Technology, Policy and Non-Living Resources, 1978- .
  • ASFA 3: Aquatic Pollution and Environmental Quality, 1990- .
  • ASFA 4: Aquaculture Abstracts, 1984- .
  • ASFA 5: Marine Biotechnology Abstracts, 1989- .

Aquatic sciences & fisheries abstracts, 1971-1977.
LOCATION: McKay Applied Sci: INDEXES QH90.A1 A68 Part 2

which was formed by the merger of :

Aquatic biology abstracts, 1969-1971.
LOCATION: McKay Applied Sci: INDEXES QH90.A1 A68 HD
LOCATION: Museum Comp Zoology: Ref. QH90.A1 A63


Current bibliography for aquatic sciences and fisheries [title varies], 1958-1971.
LOCATION: Museum Comp Zoology: Ref. QH90.A1 A62

which continues:
FAO fisheries bulletin, 1948-1957 [title varies]
LOCATION: Museum Comp Zoology: Pj-F218 (1951-1957)
LOCATION: Widener: Econ 6403.126.17

Deep-sea research. Oceanographic abstracts and oceanographic bibliography section [title varies], 1962- .
LOCATION: Blue Hill: BLUE HILL Journal Shelved with Deep-sea research
LOCATION: Cabot Science: PER 3281 (1962-78)
LOCATION: Museum Comp Zoology: DEE 2260

Oceanic index [title varies], 1964-71

Continued by:
Oceanic abstracts with indexes [title varies], 1972- . Online coverage statrts in 1981.
LOCATION: Blue Hill: BLUE HILL Journal

Selected water resources abstracts, 1968-1991.
LOCATION: McKay Applied Sci: INDEXES TD345 51

Geography [Includes cartography, expeditions (non-oceanographic), and surveying]

Current Geographical Publications: Additions to the Research Catalogue of the American Geographical Society, 1938- .

Subject-arranged list of books, periodical articles, government documents, selected maps (since 1964), and other publications.

Cumulated in: Research catalogue of the American Geographical Society, 1923-61. 15 v. Suppl. 1, 1962-71, 4 v.; Suppl. 2, 1971-76, 2 v.

International Catalogue of Scientific Literature J. Geography (1901-14). 14 v.

Instruments, Expeditions

Carpine, C. 1987-97. Catalogue des appareils d'océanographie en collection au Musée océanographique de Monaco. Parts 1-7. Monaco: Le Musee oceanographique de Monaco. (Bulletin de l'Institut oceanographique, 1437, 1438, 1440, 1441, 1442, 1443).

  • v. 73, no. 1437 1-2. Photomètres, Mesureurs de courant, 1987, 144 pp.
  • v. 74, no. 1438 3. Appareils de prélèvement biologique, 1991, 159 pp.
  • v. 75, no. 1440 4. Bouteilles de prélèvement d'eau, 1993, 175 pp.
  • v. 75, no. 1441 5. Instruments de sondage, 1996, 208 pp.
  • v. 76, no. 1442 6. Thermomètres, 1997, 211 pp.
  • v. 76, no. 1443 7. Instruments divers, matérial de pont, instruments de laboratoire, 1998, 207 pp.

Estok, R. & R. Boykin. 1976. A Union List of Oceanographic Expeditions, Including Results of some Major Cruise Reports. College Station: Texas A&M University Libraries, 138 pp.

Schott, W. 1987. Early German Oceanographic Institutions, Expeditions, and Oceanographers. Hamburg: Deutsches Hydrographisches Institut, 50 pp.