Secondary Sources, Context, and Background

Chronologies, Dictionaries, Directories, Encyclopedias, Handbooks

Banks, R. C. 1988. Obsolete English Names of North American Birds. U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Resource Publication 174, 37 pp.

Medawar, P. B. & J. S. Medawar. 1983. Aristotle to Zoos: A Philosophical Dictionary of Zoology. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 305 pp.

Palmer, T. S. 1912. Chronology and Index of the more Important Events in American Game Protection 1776-1911. U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Biological Survey, Bulletin no. 41, 62 pp.

Subject indexed chronology with historical introduction. Tabular summaries of game laws.

Sax, B. 2001. The Mythical Zoo: An Encyclopedia of Animals in World Myth, legend, and literature. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 298 pp.

Biographical Sources

Elkhadem, H, ed. 1990. Bibliographie de savants belges, 1830-1914. I: Biologie animale. Bruxelles: Centre National d'Histoire des Sciences, 433 pp.

Zoology: Biography - By Specialty


Dobson, J. 1962. Anatomical Eponyms: Being a Biographical Dictionary of those Anatomists whose Names have become Incorporated into Anatomical Nomenclature... 2nd ed. Edinburgh/London: E. & S. Livingstone, 235 pp.


Dewsbury, D. A., ed. 1985. Studying Animal Behavior: Autobiographies of the Founders. University of Chicago Press, 512 pp.


Darby, M. 2004. Biographical Dictionary of British Coleopterists.

Gilbert, P. 2007. A source book for biographical literature on entomologists. Leiden: Backhuys, 694 p.
--Supercedes her A Compendium of the Biographical Literature on Deceased Entomologists. London: British Museum (Natural History) (Publication 786), 1977, 455 pp. and Corrections & additions: Gaedike, R. 1985. Berichtigungen und Erganzungen zu P. Gilbert: A Compendium of the Biographical Literature on Deceased Entomologists. Beitrage zur Entomologie, v. 35, pp. 369-408.

Gordh, G. 2001. A Dictionary of Entomology. Wallingford, Oxon, UK ; NY: CABI Pub., 1032 pp.

Includes common names, anatomical and physiological terms, etc. Includes names of entomologists, with reference to biography or obituary with bibliography indicated. Includes all terms in Torre-Bueno.

Hasegawa, H. 1967. Materials on the lives and contributions of the deceased Japanese entomologists since the Meiji Era. Kontyu, 35 (suppl. to no. 3), 98 pp. In Japanese

Junk, W. 1905. Entomologen-Adressbuch. The entomologist's directory. Annuaire des entomologistes. Berlin: W. Junk, 296 pp.

Arranged by country with name index. Gives name, address, specialty.

Lhoste, J. 1987. Les entomologistes français: (1750-1950). Paris: Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Office pour l'Information Eco-entomologique, 355 pp.

Mallis, A. 1971. American Entomologists. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 549 pp.

Papavero, N. and S. Ibanez-Bernal. 2001. Contributions to a History of Mexican Dipterology. Part I. Entomologists and their Works before the Biologia Centrali-Americana. Acta Zoologica Mexicana Nueva Serie, (84). (Diciembre), pp. 65-173.


Adler, K., ed. 1989. Contributions to the History of Herpetology. Oxford, OH: Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, 202 pp.


Abbott, R. T., ed. 1973. American Malacologists: A National Register of Professional and Amateur Malacologists and Private Shell Collectors and Biographies of Early American Mollusk Workers Born Between 1618 and 1900. Falls Church, VA: American Malacologists, 494 pp.

Coan, E. V., A. R. Kabat & R. E. Petit. 2006. 2,400 Years of Malacology. 3rd ed.
--Bibliography of biographical and bibliographical papers on malacologists, conchologists, paleontologists, etc.

Meijer, T. The Malacological Heritage Page
--Bibliography of biographies/obituaries of malacologists.

Tryon, G. W. 1861. List of American Writers on Recent Conchology, with the Titles of their Memoirs and Dates of Publication. NY: Baillière, 68 pp.


Haymaker, W. & F. Schiller, eds. 1970. Founders of Neurology: One Hundred and Forty-six Biographical Sketches. 2nd ed. Springfield, IL: C. C. Thomas, 616 pp.


The advisory council. Bird-Lore, vol. 4, no. 6 (Nov.-Dec. 1902), p. 192.

Short article followed by a series of portraits in
  • vol. 4, no. 6 (Nov.-Dec. 1902), p. [193]: William Dutcher, T. G. Pearson, L. Jones, E. W, Nelson
  • vol. 5, no. 1 (Jan.Feb. 1903), p. [22]: A. K. Fisher, R. Ridgway, ?? Roberts, ?? Southwick
  • vol. 5, no. 1 (Jan.Feb. 1903), p. [25]: E. Bagg, J. Fannin, M. F. Jones, T. McIlwraith,
  • vol. 5, no. 2 (March-Apr. 1903), p. [60]: W. B. Barrows, H. Nehrling, O. G. Libby, W. C. Todd,
  • vol. 5, no. 2 (March-Apr. 1903), p. [63]: E. H. Barbour, W. W. Cooke, M. J. Elrod, C. Keeler,
  • vol. 5, no. 3 (May-June. 1903), pp. [96-97]: H. Brown, A. W. Butler, E. H. Eaton, B. T. Gault, E. A. Mearns, E. Murphy, J. H. Sage, C. M. Weed,
  • vol. 5, no. 4 (July.-Aug. 1903), p [131]: O. W. Knight, W. C. Rives, W. E. Saunders, W. Stone,
  • vol. 5, no. 5 (Sept.-Oct. 1903), p. [161]: J. H. Fleming, F. H. Knowlton, O. Widmann, R. W. Williams, Jr.
  • vol. 5, no. 6 (Nov.-Dec. 1903), p. [192: W. G. Bergtold, W. Brewster, M. Chamberlain, E. T. Seton.

Beolens, B. and M. Watkins. 2003. Whose bird?: Men and women commemorated in the common names of birds. London: Christopher Helm, 400 p.

Paragraph-length biographies, many with portraits.

Coale, H.K. 1887. Coale's Handy List of the Ornithologists and Oologists of the United States and Canada. Chicago, IL. 9 pp.

Names and addresses.

Gebhardt, L. 1964. Der Ornithologen Mitteleuropas: ein Nachschlagewerk. v. 1. Giessen: Bruhlscher, 403 pp. [Vols. 2-4: Journal fur Ornithologie. Sonderheft. v. 111, 1970, 233 pp.; v. 115, 1974, 126 pp.; v. 121, 1980, 80 pp. [Deceased ornithologists]]

Hawkins, A. S. et al., eds. 1984. Wells W. Cooke. Flyways: Pioneering Waterfowl Management in North America. Washington, DC: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

Hume, E. E. 1942. Ornithologists of the United States Army Medical Corps. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 583 pp.

Jackson, C. E. 1985. Bird Etchings: The Illustrators and their Books, 1655-1855. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 292 pp.

Covers 16 author/illustrators, late 17th to early 19th centuries. Appendices on "Continental illustrated bird books published to 1660" (pp. 247-49) and "The main periodicals with engraved/etched bird illustrations" (pp. 256-57).

Jackson, C. E. 1999. Dictionary of Bird Artists of the World. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Antique Collectors' Club, 550 pp.

Mearns, B. & R. Mearns. 1988. Biographies for Birdwatchers: The Lives of those Commemorated in Palearctic Bird Names. London: Academic Press, 490 pp. Not at Harvard

Mearns, B. & R. Mearns. 1992. Audubon to Xántus: The Lives of Those Commemorated in North American Bird Names. London: Academic Press, 588 pp.

Miller, R. F. 1966-1970. Biographies of People for Whom Birds have been Named. 5 booklets. Baldwin City, KS: Baldwin Bird Club.

Short biographical sketches of over 200 persons for whom American birds have been named. References included for each person.

Palmer, T. S. et al. 1954. Biographies of Members of the American Ornithologists' Union, reprinted from 'The Auk', 1884-1954. Ed. by P. H. Oehser. Washington, DC: Lord Baltimore Press, 630 pp.

Voous, K. H. 1995. In de ban van vogels: geschiedenis van de beoefening van de ornithologie in Nederland in de twintigste eeuw: tevens ornithologisch biografisch woordenboek. Utrecht: Scheffers, 605 pp.

Willard, S. L. 1877. Directory of Ornithologists of the United States. Utica, NY: Oologist, 57, 6 pp.


Bindman, L., A. Brading, & T. Tansey, eds. 1993. Women Physiologists: An Anniversary Celebration of their Contributions to British Physiology. London / Chapel Hill, NC: Portland Press, 166 pp. 18 biographical sketches with portraits.

O'Connor, W. J. 1988. Founders of British Physiology: A Biographical Dictionary, 1820-1885. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 278 pp.

O'Connor, W. J. 1991. British Physiologists, 1885-1914: A Biographical Dictionary. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 582 pp.

Primary Sources

Periodical Indexes

Bericht über die Fortschritte der Anatomie und Physiologie (1856-71) includes for each subject a list of publications followed by summary/discussion of the year's work. Author index. Cumulative author index for v. 1-10 (1872-81). Includes physical anthropology. Published as special section of Zeitschrift für rationelle Medicin (1856-68). Titled: Jahresbericht über die Fortschritte der Anatomie und Physiologie (1872-91).
LOCATION: Countway Medicine: Harvard Depository Serial (1856-1871, 1884-1891)
LOCATION: Museum Comp Zoology: S-J25.2 (1856-1891)
LOCATION: Widener: Harvard Depository Sci 3285.9 (1861-71)
LOCATION: Widener: Harvard Depository Sci 3285.10 (1872/73-1891/92)
LOCATION: Widener: Sci 3285.10.5 = index

Continued by:
Jahresbericht über die Fortschritte der Physiologie, 1892-1911. Author index in each volume. Indexes: 1-10 Bd., 1892-1901, with 11-12 Bd.; 11-20 Bd., 1902-1911, 1 vol.
LOCATION: Countway Medicine: Serial (1892-1964 (incomplete); 1921-1964 at Harvard Depository)
LOCATION: Museum Comp Zoology: S-J25.4 (1892-1912)
LOCATION: Widener: Harvard Depository: Sci 85.102 (1920-69)

Title varies:
Jahresbericht über die Fortschritte der animalischen Physiologie, 1912-19.
Berichte über die gesamte Physiologie, 1920.
Berichte über die gesamte Physiologie und experimentelle Pharmakologie, 1921-69.

Also continued by:
Jahresberichte über die Fortschritte der Anatomie und Entwicklungsgeschichte, 1892-1914) which offers citations (no summaries) arranged by subject with author index. Cumulative author index for v. 1-7 (1892-1901). Includes physical anthropology.
LOCATION: Countway Medicine: Serial (1892-1914)
LOCATION: Museum Comp Zoology: S-J25.6 (1892-1912)

Bibliographia zoologica (1896-1934) arranges articles in a subject classification, no other subject and no author access.
LOCATION: Cabot Science: PER 2330 (1896-1898; 1910-1929)
LOCATION: Museum Comp Zoology: Ref. QL45.B6 (1896-1934)

"Litteratur" section in Zoologischer Anzeiger, 1878-1895.
LOCATION: Museum Comp Zoology: ZOO 8680

Bibliotheca zoologica [I] Verzeichniss der schriften über zoologie, welche in den periodischen werken enthalten und vom jahre 1846-1860 selbständig erschienen sind. Bearb. von J. Victor Carus und Wilhelm Engelmann. Leipzig, W. Engelmann, 1861.
2 v. (2144 p.)
Location :  Museum Comp Zoology  |  Ref.    |  QL45 .B58
Location :  Widener  |  Harvard Depository    |  KF 29854

Most exhaustive source before the beginning of the Zoological Recordin 1864. Covers pre-1860 periodical articles and separately published works for 1846-1860.

Continued by:
Bibliotheca zoologica II : verzeichness der schriften über zoologie / by O. Taschenberg. Leipzig, Germany : Verlag von Wilhelm Engelmann, 1887-1923. 8 v. in 9.
Location :  Widener  |  Harvard Depository   |  KF 29855
Location :  Museum Comp Zoology Ref. QL45 .B582x 

Bibliographie anatomique (1893-1918) is largely devoted to original works, but contains a Bibliographie section with articles listed by author under subject. No indexes.
LOCATION: Countway Medicine: ZQS 4 B582 (1893-1918)
LOCATION: Museum Comp Zoology: Ref QL801.B5 (1893-1918)

Index ... to the literature of American economic entomology, 1905-1959.
LOCATION: Museum Comp Zoology: E.D.-I38 (1917-1959)

Bibliography of the more important contributions to American economic entomology. 8 v. U.S. Bureau of Entomology, 1889-1905.
LOCATION: Cabot Science: QL462.5.U4 1890 (1,2,3, 7)
LOCATION: Countway Medicine: 10.Y.1889.1 Library has 2 v.
LOCATION: Museum Comp Zoology: E.D.-U58.2bi Pt. 1-3, 1890-8, 1905
LOCATION: Museum Comp Zoology: MCZ-Henshaw
LOCATION: Widener: S 7510.89 Library has: 8 v.

Key-word-index of wildlife research, 1974- .
LOCATION: Museum Comp Zoology: REF S962.A2 K49

Review of applied entomology. Series A: agricultural, 1913- .
LOCATION: Museum Comp Zoology: REV 6300 (1913-1988)

Review of applied entomology. Series B, Medical and veterinary, 1913-1989.
LOCATION: Countway Medicine: Serial (1913-1961, incomplete)
LOCATION: Museum Comp Zoology: REV 6300.1 ((1913-1989)

Wildlife review, 1935-1995
Indexed by: Wildlife abstracts.
LOCATION: Museum Comp Zoology: Ref (1935-95)

Wildlife abstracts: a bibliography and index of the abstracts and citations in Wildlife review, 1935- .
LOCATION: Museum Comp Zoology: REF S962.W5 (1935/1951-1976/1980)

Zoologischer Jahresbericht, 1879-1913) lists titles for each subject/taxon, followed by summaries/discussions. Author index in each vol. Cumulative author indexes: 1886-1890, 1890-1900, 1900-1910.
LOCATION: Museum Comp Zoology: Ref QL1.Z6

Zoologisches Centralblatt (1894-1918) lists titles for each subject/taxon, followed by summaries/discussions. Author index in each issue or for whole volume. Title varies.
LOCATION: Countway Medicine: Serial: (1894-1918) (1894-1911 at Harvard Depository)
LOCATION: Museum Comp Zoology: Ref QL1.Z87 (1894-1912)
LOCATION: Museum Comp Zoology: Ref QL1. Z88 (1912-18)

Zoology: Primary Sources - Collections

Arnett, R. H. Jr., G. A. Samuelson & G. M. Nishida. 1993. The Insect and Spider Collections of the World. 2nd ed. Gainesville, FL: Sandhill Crane Press (Flora and Fauna Handbook no. 11), 309 pp.

Banks, R.C., M.H. Clench, & J.C. Barlow. 1973. Bird collections in the United States and Canada. Auk, v. 90, no. 1, pp. 136-170.

Clench, M.H., R.C. Banks, and J.C. Barlow. 1976. Bird collections in the United States and Canada: Addenda and corrigenda. Auk, v. 93, no. 1, pp. 126-129.

Engel, H. 1986. Hendrik Engel's Alphabetical List of Dutch Zoological Cabinets and Menageries. 2nd ed. by Pieter Smit. Amsterdam: Rodopi (Nieuwe Nederlandse Bijdragen tot de Geschiedenis der Geneeskunde en der Natuurwetenschappen, no. 19), 340 pp.

Gaedike, R. 1995. Collectiones entomologicae (1961-1994). Nova Supplementa Entomologica, v. 6, pp. 3-83.

Hafner, M. S. et al. 1997. Mammal Collections in the Western Hemisphere: A Survey and Directory of Existing Collections. Lawrence, KS: American Society of Mammalogists, 93 pp.

Hahn, P. 1963. Where is that Vanished Bird? An Index to the Known Specimens of the Extinct and Near Extinct North American Species. Toronto: Life Sciences Division, Royal Ontario Museum, University of Toronto, 347 p.

Horn, W., I. Kahle, G. Friese and R. Gaedike. 1990. Collectiones entomologicae. Ein Kompendium uber den Verbleib entomologischer Sammlungen der Welt bis 1960. Akademie der Landwirtschaftswissenschaften der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik, Berlin. Teil 1: A bis K, 1-220; Teil 2: L bis Z., 221-573.

Kiff, L. F. and D. J. Hough. 1985. Inventory of Bird Egg Collections of North America, 1985. Norman, OK: American Ornithologists' Union and Oklahoma Biological Survey, 259 pp.

Rogers, S. P., M. A. Schmidt, and T. Gutebier. 1989. Historical preparation. Pp. 131-149 in: An Annotated Bibliography on Preparation, Taxidermy, and Collection Management of Vertebrates with Emphasis on Birds. Special publication of Carnegie Museum of Natural History no. 15, 189 pp.

Pre-1900 references on taxidermy and scientific preparation, and on the history of scientific collecting and taxidermy.

Wiktor, J. & W. Rydzewski. 1991. Bibliography of Catalogues of Type Specimens in World's Zoological and Palaeozoological Collections. Wroclaw: Wroclow University Press, 308 pp.

Williams, S. L. and C. A. Hawks. 1987. History of preparation materials used for Recent mammal specimens. Pp. 21-49 in Mammal Collection Management, edited by Hugh H. Genoways, Clyde Jones, and Olga L. Rossolimo. Lubbock, TX: Texas Tech University Press, 219 pp.

Includes catalog of materials used in mammal preparation and a bibliography.